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Background: Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is used as a remedy in folk medicine since ancient times because of its several biological and pharmacological properties. Recently, propolis has been used by dentist to treat various oral diseases. It was always mentioned as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cytokines are proteins that provide communication between cells and play a critical role in a wide variety of processes. It released from cells in an inflammatory process that active, mediate or potential actions of other cells or tissues. When dental pulp has inflammation, several pro-inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was released by innate immune cells. Objective: To analyse the expression of IL-6 on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue following application of propolis. Material and methods: Trigona sp. propolis was obtained from Luwu Regency, south Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Flavonoid and non-flavonoid extracts were purified from propolis using thin layer chromatography. The study was applied on 80 male Sprague Dawley rats, 10–12 weeks of age, divided randomly and equally into 5 groups. Group I, as negative control group was not conducted any treatment. At group II, III, IV and V. A Class I cavity (Black Classification) were made on the occlusal surface of right maxillary first molar. The dental pulp was perforated using dental explorer and allowed in the oral environment for 1 h, after that, Ethanolic Extract Propolis (EEP) (Group II), Extract Flavonoid-Propolis (EFP) (Group III), Extract Non-Flavonoid Propolis (ENFP) (Group IV), or Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) (Group V) were applied on dental pulp. All cavities were then filled with Glass Ionomer Cement as permanent filling. The rats being sacrificed in 6 h, 2 days, 4 days and 7 days. Sample biopsy were obtained, IL-6 expression was detected by using immunohistochemistry method. Data was analyzed statistically using Freidman and Kruskal Wallis tests with significance level of P < 0.05. Results: All agent showed IL-6 expression in inflamed rat dental pulp tissue, and this expression was decreased with the longer of observation time periods. EEP more stronger to decreased IL-6 expression on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue than other agent. There is significant difference (P < 0.05) of IL-6 expression between group I and other groups in 6 h and 2 days but not in 4 and 7 days time periods. Conclusion: Trigona sp. propolis from south Sulawesi, Indonesia could suppressed the expression of IL-6 on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the association of “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood groups with incidence of breast cancer.MethodsIn this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including “PubMed”, “ISI-Web of Knowledge”, “Embase” and “Google Scholar”. The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including “ABO blood type”, “Rhesus” blood type and “breast cancer”. The research documents in which “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded.ResultsBlood group “A” has high incidence of breast cancer (45.88%), blood group “O” has (31.69%); “B” (16.16%) and blood group “AB” has (6.27%) incidence of breast cancer. Blood group “A” has highest and blood group “AB” has least association with breast cancer. Furthermore, “Rhesus +ve” blood group has high incidence of breast cancer (88.31%) and “Rhesus –ve” blood group has least association with breast cancer (11.68%).ConclusionBlood group “A” and “Rhesus +ve” have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type “AB” and “Rhesus –ve” are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group “A” and “Rh +ve” as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveTo study the protective effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on BIT model by brain ischemic tolerance (hereinafter BIT) model of mice.MethodBIT model is used to block bilateral common carotid arteries and to copy BIT model of mice. After 10 min of transient ischemia for rats in preconditioning group, the mice in the nimodipine group and naoluotong capsule group were given the total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens (300 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg) for gavage, sham operation group, ischemia/reperfusion injury (hereinafter IRI) group and BIT group were fed with the same volume of 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) once a day for 5 days. After administration for 1 h on day 5 (120 h), the rats in the other groups except for the sham operation group were treated with blood flow block for 30 min and reperfusion for 22 h. The serum NSE level were measured and the brain NO content and NOS activity changes was measured to observe the histopathological changes of brain tissue.ResultsBIT models of mice and in rats were both successfully replicated. The total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens can decrease the mortality of mice, decrease serum NSE level, increase the content of NO and the activity of NOS in the brain tissue of mice, and improve the pathological damage of cortex and hippocampus of mice.ConclusionThe total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens can stimulate an endogenous protective mechanism by inducing the release of low levels of cytokines NO and NOS, which reduces the release of serum NSE, relieves the brain tissue ischemia-reperfusion injury, and further improves the protection effect of ischemic preconditioning on brain injury. The damage of brain tissue ischemia and reperfusion, and further improve the ischemia Protective effect of preconditioning on brain injury.  相似文献   
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There is a diverse range of microbiological challenges facing the food, healthcare and clinical sectors. The increasing and pervasive resistance to broad‐spectrum antibiotics and health‐related concerns with many biocidal agents drives research for novel and complementary antimicrobial approaches. Biofilms display increased mechanical and antimicrobial stability and are the subject of extensive research. Cold plasmas (CP) have rapidly evolved as a technology for microbial decontamination, wound healing and cancer treatment, owing to the chemical and bio‐active radicals generated known collectively as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This review outlines the basics of CP technology and discusses the interactions with a range of microbiological targets. Advances in mechanistic insights are presented and applications to food and clinical issues are discussed. The possibility of tailoring CP to control specific microbiological challenges is apparent. This review focuses on microbiological issues in relation to food‐ and healthcare‐associated human infections, the role of CP in their elimination and the current status of plasma mechanisms of action.  相似文献   
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To increase the menaquinone (MK) content of an Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, site-directed mutagenesis was generated to suppress 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyl transferase (UbiA) activity and subsequently blocked the ubiquinone (UQ) biosynthesis pathway. Fourteen conserved residues except L174 and G211 were mutated to analyze the effect of site-directed mutagenesis. The expression of UbiA in twelve mutants was decreased in both mRNA and protein levels, which resulted in the decrease of UQ concentration. Based on MenA expression level, 12 mutants were divided into two groups. Second group such as N72A, D76A, K81A, L139A, and D198A enhanced the expression of MenA, which increased MK production by 127.1%, 87.9%, 96.2%, 109.7% and 130.0% in wt-EmUbiA, respectively. In general, blocking UQ synthesis pathway for by site-directed mutagenesis of the active site of UbiA in E. meningoseptica was a promising strategy to increase MK production in E. meningoseptica.  相似文献   
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Introduction: B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a hematological malignancy considered as the most common leukemia in the Western world. The understanding of B cell differentiation is crucial for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of the disease.

Areas covered: In this review, B-cell ontogeny and its relation with the CLL development, in combination with the proteomic approaches which could provide a deep characterization of the disease through the characterization of the cellular signaling pathways involved in the pathological cells is described.

Expert commentary: Although conventional strategies (genome sequencing, morphology assays, and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and/or immunochemistry) have allowed the establishment of the disease stage based on different parameters, it is still necessary to utilize novel approaches (e.g., proteomics) that have the potential to simultaneously analyze thousands of molecules to improve understanding of CLL.  相似文献   

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The European Common Agricultural Policy still follows its primary goals, i.e. quality food at affordable prices and a decent standard of living for farmers, fifty years after its adoption. Moreover, this policy adapts to the changing needs of society and the new challenges, mostly preservation of the environment, nature and biodiversity in rural areas. Although the Common Agricultural Policy receives the largest share of European budget, the funds are decreasing over time, especially direct payments, which aim to provide basic income support to farmers in the European Union. On the other hand, agri-environmental payments are gaining importance. Policy decision-makers should be interested in the question of impacts of growing eco-conditionality of agricultural spending. New insights would help them to be successful in achieving the goals of sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impacts of production support payments and rural development payments on the quality of groundwater. We use the small EU country Slovenia as an example. The baseline indicators are the level of nitrates and pesticides in groundwater, while the impacts were estimated using spatial error model. The results show that direct payments, coupled subsidies and investment grants raise the level of pesticides in groundwater, but do not have any statistically significant impact on the level of nitrates in groundwater. Furthermore, we did not find any statistically significant effects of agri-environmental payments on decrease of groundwater pollution with nitrates. However, our findings revealed that agri-environmental payments are effective in reducing pesticides in groundwater, although only to a limited extent. These results imply a problem of insufficient targeting of agri-environmental measures on the one hand, and suggest that greening of direct payments is necessary and entirely justified.  相似文献   
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