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1.
Inorganic pyrophosphate:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase from mung beans (Phaseolusaureus Roxb.) was activated markedly by D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, with a KA of about 50 nM. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic kinetics both in the absence and presence of the activator. D-Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (1 μM) decreased the Km for D-fructose 6-phosphate 67-fold (from 20 mM to 0.3 mM) and increased the Vmax 15-fold; these two effects combined to give a 500-fold activation at 0.3 mM D-fructose 6-phosphate. In contrast, ATP:D-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase from the same source was found not to be affected by D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.A natural activator for inorganic pyrophosphate:D-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase was isolated from mung-bean extracts and identified as D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.  相似文献   

2.
β-d-Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) is an important regulator of eukaryotic glucose homeostasis, functioning as a potent activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and inhibitor of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Pharmaceutical manipulation of intracellular Fru-2,6-P2 levels, therefore, is of interest for the treatment of certain diseases, including diabetes and cancer. [2-32P]Fru-2,6-P2 has been the reagent of choice for studying the metabolism of this effector molecule; however, its short half-life necessitates frequent preparation. Here we describe a convenient, economical, one-pot enzymatic preparation of high-specific-activity tritium-labeled Fru-2,6-P2. The preparation involves conversion of readily available, carrier-free d-[6,6′-3H]glucose to [6,6′-3H]Fru-2,6-P2 using hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase. The key reagent in this preparation, bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from human liver, was produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and purified in a single step using an appendant C-terminal hexa-His affinity tag. Following purification by anion exchange chromatography using triethylammonium bicarbonate as eluant, radiochemically pure [6,6′-3H]Fru-2,6-P2 having a specific activity of 50 Ci/mmol was obtained in yields averaging 35%. [6,6′-3H]Fru-2,6-P2 serves as a stable, high-specific-activity substrate in a facile assay capable of detecting fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase in the range of 10−14 to 10−15 mol, and it should prove to be useful in many studies of the metabolism of this important biofactor.  相似文献   

3.
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is the most potent activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in animal tissues. This study was prompted by the finding that the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in frog skeletal muscle was dramatically increased at the initiation of exercise and was closely correlated with the glycolytic flux during exercise. 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, the enzyme system catalyzing the synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, was purified from frog (Rana esculenta) skeletal muscle and its properties were compared with those of the rat muscle type enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli using recombinant DNA techniques. 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from frog muscle was purified 5600-fold. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities could not be separated, indicating that the frog muscle enzyme is bifunctional. The enzyme preparation from frog muscle showed two bands on sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The minor band had a relative molecular mass of 55800 and was identified as a liver (L-type) isoenzyme. It was recognized by an antiserum raised against a specific amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the L-type isoenzyme and was phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The major band in the preparations from frog muscle (relative molecular mass = 53900) was slightly larger than the recombinant rat muscle (M-type) isoenzyme (relative molecular mass = 53300). The pH profiles of the frog muscle enzyme were similar to those of the rat M-type isoenzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity was optimal at pH 9.3, whereas fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity was optimal at pH 5.5. However, the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from frog muscle differed from other M-type isoenzymes in that, at physiological pH, the maximum activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase exceeded that of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, the activity ratio being 1.7 (at pH 7.2) compared to 0.2 in the rat M-type isoenzyme. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase activity from the frog and rat muscle enzymes was strongly inhibited by citrate and by phosphoenolpyruvate whereas glycerol 3-phosphate had no effect. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity from frog muscle was very sensitive to the non-competitive inhibitor fructose 6-phosphate (inhibitor concentration causing 50% decrease in activity = 2 mol · l-1). The inhibition was counteracted by inorganic phosphate and, particularly, by glycerol 3-phosphate. In the presence of inorganic phosphate and glycerol 3-phosphate the frog muscle fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was much more sensitive to fructose 6-phosphate inhibition than was the rat M-type fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. No change in kinetics and no phosphorylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from frog muscle was observed after incubation with protein kinase C and a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. The kinetics of frog muscle 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, although they would favour an initial increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in exercising frog muscle, cannot fully account for the changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate observed in muscle of exercising frog. Regulatory mechanisms not yet studied must be involved in working frog muscle in vivo.Abbreviations BSA bovine serum albumin - Ca/CAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) - CL anti-l-type PFK-21 FBPase-2 antiserum - DTT dithiothreitol - EP phosphorylated enzyme intermediate - FBPase-2 fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.46) - F2,6P2 fructose 2,6-bisphosphate - I0,5 inhibitor concentration required to decrease enzyme activity by 50% - MCL-2 anti-PFK-2/FBPase-2 antiserum - Mr relative molecular mass - PEG polyethylene glycol - PFK-1 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (EC 2.7.1.11) - PKF-2 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (EC 2.7.1.105) - PKA protein kinase A = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) - PKC protein kinase C (EC 2.7.1.37) - SDS sodium dodecylsulphate - SDS-PAGE sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis - U unit of enzyme activity  相似文献   

4.
The sugar phosphate specificity of the active site of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and of the inhibitory site of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was investigated. The Michaelis constants and relative Vmax values of the sugar phosphates for the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase were: D-fructose 6-phosphate, Km = 0.035 mM, Vmax = 1; L-sorbose 6-phosphate, Km = 0.175 mM, Vmax = 1.1; D-tagatose 6-phosphate, Km = 15 mM, Vmax = 0.15; and D-psicose 6-phosphate, Km = 7.4 mM, Vmax = 0.42. The enzyme did not catalyze the phosphorylation of 1-O-methyl-D-fructose 6-phosphate, alpha- and beta-methyl-D-fructofuranoside 6-phosphate, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-phosphate, D-ribose 5-phosphate, or D-arabinose 5-phosphate. These results indicate that the hydroxyl group at C-3 of the tetrahydrofuran ring must be cis to the beta-anomeric hydroxyl group and that the hydroxyl group at C-4 must be trans. The presence of a hydroxymethyl group at C-2 is required; however, the orientation of the phosphonoxymethyl group at C-5 has little effect on activity. Of all the sugar monophosphates tested, only 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-phosphate was an effective inhibitor of the kinase with a Ki = 95 microM. The sugar phosphate specificity for the inhibition of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was similar to the substrate specificity for the kinase. The apparent I0.5 values for inhibition were: D-fructose 6-phosphate, 0.01 mM; L-sorbose 6-phosphate, 0.05 mM; D-psicose 6-phosphate, 1 mM; D-tagatose 6-phosphate, greater than 2 mM; 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-phosphate, 0.5 mM. 1-O-Methyl-D-fructose 6-phosphate, alpha- and beta-methyl-D-fructofuranoside 6-phosphate, and D-arabinose 5-phosphate did not inhibit. Treatment of the enzyme with iodoacetamide decreased sugar phosphate affinity in the kinase reaction but had no effect on the sensitivity of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase to sugar phosphate inhibition. The results suggest a high degree of homology between two separate sugar phosphate binding sites for the bifunctional enzyme.  相似文献   

5.
Summary A new activator of phosphofructokinase, which is bound to the enzyme and released during its purification, has been discovered. Its structure has been determined as -D Fructose-2,6-P2 by chemical synthesis, analysis of various degradation products and NMR. D-Fructose-2,6-P2 is the most potent activator of phosphofructokinase and relieves inhibition of the enzyme by ATP and citrate. It lowers the Km for fructose-6-P from 6 mM to 0.1 mM.Fructose-6-P,2-kinase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-2,6-P2 from fructose-6-P and ATP, and the enzyme has been partially purified. The degradation of fructose-2,6-P2 is catalyzed by fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Thus a metabolic cycle could occur between fructose-6-P and fructose-2,6-P2, which are catalyzed by these two opposing enzymes. The activities of these enzymes can be controlled by phosphorylation. Fructose-6-P,2-kinase is inactivated by phosphorylation catalyzed by either cAMP dependent protein kinase or phosphorylase kinase. The inactive, phospho-fructose-6-P,2-kinase is activated by dephosphorylation catalyzed by phosphorylase phosphatase. On the other hand, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase is activated by phosphorylation catalyzed by cAMP dependent protein kinase.Investigation into the hormonal regulation of phosphofructokinase reveals that glucagon stimulates phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase which results in decreased affinity for fructose-2,6-P2, and decreases the fructose-2,6-P2 levels. This decreased level in fructose-2,6-P2 appears to be due to the decreased synthesis by inactivation of fructose-2,6-P2,2-kinase and increased degradation as a result of activation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Such a reciprocal change in these two enzymes has been demonstrated in the hepatocytes treated by glucagon and epinephrine. The implications of these observations in respect to possible coordinated controls of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are discussed.  相似文献   

6.
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate hydrolyzing enzymes in higher plants   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
The phosphatases that hydrolyze fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in a crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf extract were separated by chromatography on blue Sepharose, into three fractions, referred to as phosphatases I, II, and III, which were further purified by various means. Phosphatase I hydrolyzed fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, with a Km value of 30 micromolar, to a mixture of fructose 2-phosphate (90%) and fructose 6-phosphate (10%). It acted on a wide range of substrates and had a maximal activity at acidic pH. Phosphatase II specifically recognized the osyl-link of phosphoric derivatives and had more affinity for the β-anomeric form. Its apparent Km for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was 30 micromolar. It most likely corresponded to the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase described by F. D. Macdonald, Q. Chou, and B. B. Buchanan ([1987] Plant Physiol 85: 13-16). Phosphatase III copurified with phosphofructokinase 2 and corresponded to the specific, low-Km (24 nanomolar) fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase purified and characterized by Y. Larondelle, E. Mertens, E. Van Schaftingen, and H. G. Hers ([1986] Eur J Biochem 161: 351-357). Three similar types of phosphatases were present in a crude extract of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber. The concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate decreased at a maximal rate of 30 picomoles per minute and per gram of fresh tissue in slices of Jerusalem artichoke tuber, upon incubation in 50 millimolar mannose. This rate could be accounted for by the maximal extractable activity of the low-Km fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. A new enzymic method for the synthesis of β-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate from β-glucose 1-phosphate and ATP is described.  相似文献   

7.
通过RT-PCR,结合RACE技术,得到了玉米(Zea mays L.)果糖-6-磷酸,2-激酶/果糖-2,6-二磷酸酶的全长cDNA克隆,命名为mF2KP.氨基酸序列同源性比较发现,mF2KP蛋白可以分为两个部分:C端包含高度保守的催化功能区,N端为植物中特有的多肽.将mF2KP基因中一段包含完整催化功能区的片段在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)中表达,融合蛋白具有果糖-6-磷酸,2-激酶/果糖-2,6-二磷酸酶活性.Northern杂交证明在种子活力不同的幼苗中,mF2KP的转录水平存在明显差异.种子活力越高,幼苗中mF2KP的转录水平越低.  相似文献   

8.
Net photosynthesis (CER), assimilate-export rate, sucrose-phosphate-synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) activity, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate content, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (EC 2.7.1.105) activity were monitored in leaves of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants during a 12:12 h day-night cycle, and in plants transferred, at regular intervals throughout the diurnal cycle, to an illuminated chamber for 3 h. In the control plants, assimilate-export rate decreased progressively during the day whereas in transferred plants, a strongly rhythmic fluctuation in both CER and export rate was observed over the 24-h test period. Two maxima during the 24-h period for both processes were observed: one when plants were transferred during the middle of the normal light period, and a second when plants were transferred during the middle of the normal dark period. Overall, the results indicated that export rate was correlated positively with photosynthetic rate and sucrose-phosphate-synthase activity, and correlated negatively with fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels, and that coarse control and fine control of the sucrose-formation pathway are coordinated during the diurnal cycle. Diurnal changes in sucrose-phosphate-synthase activity were not associated with changes in regulatory properties (phosphate inhibition) or substrate affinities. The biochemical basis for the diurnal rhythm in sucrose-phosphate-synthase activity in the soybean leaf thus appears to involve changes in the amount of the enzyme or a post-translational modification that affects only the maximum velocity.Abbreviations FBPase fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase - SPS sucrose-phosphate synthase - F26BPase fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase - PGI glucose-6-phosphate isomerase - F6P fructose-6-phosphate - F26BP fructose-2,6-bisphosphate - G6P glucose-6-phosphate - CER net carbon exchange rate - Pi inorganic phosphate - DHAP dihydroxyacetone phosphate - PGA glycerate 3-phosphate - F6P,2-kinase 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase Cooperative investigations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh. Paper No. 10503 of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC 27695-7601  相似文献   

9.
10.
(i) We have studied the influence of reduced phosphoglucose-isomerase (PGI) activity on photosynthetic carbon metabolism in mutants of Clarkia xantiana Gray (Onagraceae). The mutants had reduced plastid (75% or 50% of wildtype) or reduced cytosolic (64%, 36% or 18% of wildtype) PGI activity. (ii) Reduced plastid PGI had no significant effect on metabolism in low light. In high light, starch synthesis decreased by 50%. There was no corresponding increase of sucrose synthesis. Instead glycerate-3-phosphate, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, reduction of QA (the acceptor for photosystem II) and energy-dependent chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching increased, and O2 evolution was inhibited by 25%. (iii) Decreased cytosolic PGI led to lower rates of sucrose synthesis, increased fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, glycerate-3-phosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, and a stimulation of starch synthesis, but without a significant inhibition of O2 evolution. Partitioning was most affected in low light, while the metabolite levels changed more at saturating irradiances. (iv) These results provide decisive evidence that fructose-2,6-bisphosphate can mediate a feedback inhibition of sucrose synthesis in response to accumulating hexose phosphates. They also provide evidence that the ensuing stimulation of starch synthesis is due to activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by a rising glycerate-3-phosphate: inorganic phosphate ratio, and that this can occur without any loss of photosynthetic rate. However the effectiveness of these mechanisms varies, depending on the conditions. (v) These results are analysed using the approach of Kacser and Burns (1973, Trends Biochem. Sci. 7, 1149–1161) to provide estimates for the elasticities and flux-control coefficient of the cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and to estimate the gain in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphate regulator cycle during feedback inhibition of sucrose synthesis.Abbreviations and symbols Chl chlorophyll - Fru6P fructose-6-phosphate - Frul,6bisP fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - Fru-1,6Pase fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase - Fru2,6bisP fructose-2,6-bisphosphate - Fru2,6Pase fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase - Glc6P glucose-6-phosphate - PGI phosphoglucose isomerase - Pi inorganic phosphate - QA acceptor for photosystem II - Ru1,5bisP ributose-1,5-bisphosphate - SPS sucrose-phosphate synthase  相似文献   

11.
The effects of tolbutamide on the activities of fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase were examined using rat hepatocytes. Tolbutamide stimulated fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase activity and inhibited fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity, resulting in an increase of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate level. Changes in the activities of the enzyme by tolbutamide were due to variation in the Km value, but not dependent on alteration of Vmax. Glucagon inhibition of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate formation resulting from an inactivation of fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase and an activation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was released by tolbutamide. Tolbutamide stimulation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate formation through regulation of fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase may produce enhancement of glycolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.  相似文献   

12.
N-Bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate and 3-bromo-1,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 1,4-bisphosphate have been tested in order to study the hexose phosphate binding sites of a bifunctional enzyme, fructose-6-P,2-kinase:fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. N-Bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate is a competitive inhibitor with respect to fructose-6-P (Ki = 0.24 mM) and a noncompetitive inhibitor with ATP (Ki = 0.8 mM). The reagent inactivates fructose-6-P,2-kinase but not fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, and the inactivation is prevented by fructose-6-P. The inactivation reaction follows pseudo first-order kinetics to completion and with increasing concentrations of N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate a rate saturation effect is observed. The concentration of the reagent giving the half-maximum inactivation is 2.2 mM and the apparent first order rate constant is 0.0046 s-1. The enzyme alkylated by N-bromoacetylethanolamine-P has lost over 90% of the kinase activity, retains nearly full activity of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, and its inhibition by fructose-6-P is not altered. 3-Bromo-1,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 1,4-bisphosphate is also a competitive inhibitor of fructose-6-P,2-kinase with respect to fructose-6-P in the forward reaction and fructose-2,6-P2 in the reverse direction. This reagent inhibits 93% of fructose-6-P,2-kinase but activates fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3.7-fold. 3-Bromo-1,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 1,4-bisphosphate alters the fructose-2,6-P2 saturation kinetic curve from negative cooperativity to normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics with K0.5 of 0.8 microM. The reagent, however, has no effect on the fructose-6-P inhibition of the phosphatase. These results strongly suggest that hexose phosphate binding sites of fructose-6-P,2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase are distinct and located in different regions of this bifunctional enzyme.  相似文献   

13.
Total 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) activity, amounts of each type of PFK subunit, and levels of fructose-2,6-P2 in the cerebral cortex, midbrain, pons-medulla, and cerebellum of 3, 12, and 25 month rats were measured. Further, the role of fructose-2,6-P2 in the regulation of brain PFK activity was examined. A positive correlation was found to exist between the reported losses of glucose utilization as measured by 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake and PFK activity in each region. That is, both parameters decreased to their lowest level by 12 months of age and remained decreased and fairly constant thereafter. Fructose-2,6-P2 levels did not appear to directly correlate with regional changes in glucose utilization. Also, region-specific and age-related alterations of the PFK subunits were found although these changes apparently did not correlate with decreased glucose utilization. Brain PFK is apparently saturated with fructose-2,6-P2 due to the high endogenous levels, and it contains a large proportion of the C-type subunit which dampens catalytic efficiency. Consequently, brain PFK could exist in a conformational state such that it can readily consume fructose-6-P rather than in an inhibited state requiring activation. This may explain, in part, the ability of brain to efficiently but conservatively utilize available glucose in energy production.Abbreviations fructose-2,6-P2 D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate - fructose-6-P D-fructose 6-phosphate - PAGE Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis - PFK 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase - PPi-PFK Pyrophosphate-dependent Phosphofructokinase, ribose-1,5-P2, ribose-1,5-bisphosphate - SDS Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  相似文献   

14.
Summary The course of glycerol biosynthesis, initiated by exposure to –4°C, was monitored in larvae of the goldenrod gall moth,Epiblema scudderiana, and accompanying changes in the levels of intermediates of glycolysis, adenylates, glycogen, glucose, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, and fermentative end products were characterized. Production of cryoprotectant was initiated within 6 h after a switch from +16° to –4°C, with halfmaximal levels reached in 30 h and maximal content, 450–500 mol/g wet weight, achieved after 4 days. Changes in the levels of intermediates of the synthetic pathway within 2 h at –4°C indicated that the regulatory sites involved glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, and glycerol-3-phosphatase. A rapid increase in fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of phosphofructokinase and inhibitor of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, appeared to have a role in maintaining flux in the direction of glycerol biosynthesis. Analysis of metabolite changes as glycerol production slowed suggested that the inhibitory restriction of the regulatory enzymes was slightly out of phase. Inhibition at the glycerol-3-phosphatase locus apparently occurred first and resulted in a build-up of glycolytic intermediates and an overflow accumulation of glucose. Glucose inhibition of phosphorylase, stimulating the conversion of the activea to the inactiveb forms, appears to be the mechanism that shuts off phosphorylase function, counteracting the effects of low temperature that are the basis of the initial enzyme activation. Equivalent experiments carried out under a nitrogen gas atmosphere suggested that the metabolic make-up of the larvae in autumn is one that obligately routes carbohydrate flux through the hexose monophosphate shunt. The consequence of this is that fermentative ATP production during anoxia is linked to the accumulation of large amounts of glycerol as the only means of maintaining redox balance.Abbreviations G6P glucose-6-phosphate - F6P fructose-6-phosphate - F1, 6P fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - F2,6P 2 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate - G3P grycerol-3-phosphate - DHAP dinydroxyacetonephosphate - GAP glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate - PEP phosphoenolpyruvate - PFK phosphofructokinase - FBPase fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase - PK pyruvate kinase  相似文献   

15.
Partially purified fructose-6-P,2-kinase:fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from beef heart was phosphorylated by cAMP protein kinase. The phosphorylated fructose-6-P,2-kinase shows lower Km for Fru-6-P (43 versus 105 microM) and for ATP (0.55 versus 1.3 mM) but no change in the Vmax, compared to those for unphosphorylated enzyme. There was no detectable change in Km or Vmax of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity by the phosphorylation. These changes in heart fructose-6-P,2-kinase were in direct contrast to previous results for the liver isozyme in which phosphorylation led to inhibition of the kinase activity and activation of the phosphatase activity.  相似文献   

16.
1. Fructose 6-phosphate, 2-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase occurred in Euglena gracilis SM-ZK, and is located in cytosol. 2. Fructose 6-phosphate, 2-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase were partially purified, and both enzyme activities were not separated during the partial purification. 3. The pH optimum for fructose 6-phosphate, 2-kinase activity was 7.0. The saturation curve of the enzyme activity for ATP concentration was hyperbolic, and the Km value for the substrate was 0.88 mM. On the other hand, the saturation curve of the enzyme activity for fructose 6-phosphate concentration was sigmoidal, and the K0.5 value for the substrate was 70 microM. 4. The pH optimum for fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase activity was 6.5. The saturation curve for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration was sigmoidal, and the K0.5 value for the substrate was 1.29 microM. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate showed a substrate inhibition at high concentration over 5 microM, and the enzyme activity was completely inhibited by 20 microM of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.  相似文献   

17.
18.
The aim of this work was to examine the possibility that fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) plays a role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis from fat. Fru-2,6-P2 is known to inhibit cytoplasmic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and stimulate pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase from the endosperm of seedlings of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Fru-2,6-P2 was present throughout the seven-day period in amounts from 30 to 200 picomoles per endosperm. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis by anoxia or treatment with 3-mercaptopicolinic acid doubled the amount of Fru-2,6-P2 in detached endosperm. The maximum activities of fructose 6-phosphate,2-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (enzymes that synthesize and degrade Fru-2,6-P2, respectively) were sufficient to account for the highest observed rates of Fru-2,6-P2 metabolism. Fructose 6-phosphate,2-kinase exhibited sigmoid kinetics with respect to fructose 6-phosphate. These kinetics became hyperbolic in the presence of inorganic phosphate, which also relieved a strong inhibition of the enzyme by 3-phosphoglycerate. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase was inhibited by both phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, the products of the reaction. The properties of the two enzymes suggest that in vivo the amounts of fructose-6-phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and phosphate could each contribute to the control of Fru-2,6-P2 level. Variation in the level of Fru-2,6-P2 in response to changes in the levels of these metabolites is considered to be important in regulating flux between fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 6-phosphate during germination.  相似文献   

19.
Andreas Renz  Mark Stitt 《Planta》1993,190(2):166-175
The substrate dependence and product inhibition of three different fructokinases and three different hexokinases from growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers was investigated. The tubers contained three specific fructokinases (FK1, FK2, FK3) which had a high affinity for fructose K m=64, 90 and 100 (M) and effectively no activity with glucose or other hexose sugars. The affinity for ATP (K m=26, 25 and 240 M) was at least tenfold higher than for other nucleoside triphosphates. All three fructokinases showed product inhibition by high fructose (K i=5.7, 6.0 and 21 mM) and were also inhibited by ADP competitively to ATP. Sensitivity to ADP was increased in the presence of high fructose, or fructose-6-phosphate. In certain conditions, the K i (ADP) was about threefold below the K m (ATP). All three fructokinase were also inhibited by fructose-6-phosphate acting non-competitively to fructose (K i=1.3 mM for FK2). FK1 and FK2 showed very similar kinetic properties whereas FK3, which is only present at low activities in the tuber but high activities in the leaf, had a generally lower affinity for ATP, and lower sensitivity to inhibition by ADP and fructose. The tuber also contained three hexokinases (HK1, HK2, HK3) which had a high affinity for glucose (K m=41, 130 and 35 M) and mannose but a poor affinity for fructose (K m=11, 22 and 9 mM). All three hexokinases had a tenfold higher affinity for ATP (K m=90, 280 and 560 M) than for other nucleoside triphosphates. HK1 and HK2 were both inhibited by ADP (K i=40 and 108 M) acting competitively to ATP. HK1, but not HK2, was inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate, which acted non-competitively to glucose (K i=4.1 mM). HK1 and HK2 differed, in that HK1 had a narrower pH optimum, a higher affinity for its substrate, and showed inhibition by glucose-6-phosphate. The relevance of these properties for the regulation of hexose metabolism in vivo is discussed.Abbreviations FK fructokinase - Fru6P fructose-6-phosphate - Glc6P glucose-6-phosphate - HK hexokinase - NTP nucleoside triphosphate - Pi inorganic phosphate - UDPGlc uridine-5-diphosphoglucose This work was supported by the Deutsche Froschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 137). We are grateful to Professor E. Beck (Lehrstuhl für Pflanzenphysiologie, Universität Bayreuth, FRG) for providing laboratory facilities.  相似文献   

20.
Summary The involvement of phosphofructokinase (PFK) in glycolytic control was investigated in the marine peanut worm Sipunculus nudus. Different glycolytic rates prevailed at rest and during functional and environmental anaerobiosis: in active animals glycogen depletion was enhanced by a factor of 120; during hypoxic exposure the glycolytic flux increased only slightly. Determination of the mass action ratio (MAR) revealed PFK as a non-equilibrium enzyme in all three physiological situations. Duirng muscular activity the PFK reaction was shifted towards equilibrium; this might account for the observed increase in glycolytic rate under these conditions. PFK was purified from the body wall muscle of S. nudus. The enzyme was inhibited by physiological ATP concentrations and an acidic pH; adenosine monophosphate (AMP), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P2) served as activators. PFK activity, determined under simulated cellular conditions of rest and muscular work, agreed well with the glycolytic flux in the respective situations. However, under hypoxia PFK activity surpassed the glycolytic rate, indicating that PFK may not be rate-limiting under these conditions. The results suggest that glycolytic rate in S. nudus is mainly regulated by PFK during rest and activity. Under hypoxic conditions the regulatory function of PFK is less pronounced.Abbreviations ATP, ADP, AMP adenosine tri-, di-, monophosphate - DTT dithiothreitol - EDTA ethylene diaminetetra-acetic acid - F-6-P fructose-6-phosphate - F-1,6-P2 fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - F-2,6-P2 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate; bwm, body wall muscle; fresh mass, total body weight - G-6-P glucose-6-phosphate - H enthalpy change - K a activation constant - K eq equilibrium constant - K i inhibition constant - K m Michaelis constant - MAR mass action ratio - NMR nuclear magnetic resonance - PFK phosphofructokinase - Pi inorganic phosphate - PLA phospho-l-arginine - SD standard deviation - TRIS, TRIS (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane - TRA triethanolamine hydrochloride - V max maximal velocity  相似文献   

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