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1.
Binding of the cationic tetra(tributylammoniomethyl)-substituted hydroxoaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN(4)) to bilayer lipid membranes was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and intramembrane field compensation (IFC) methods. With neutral phosphatidylcholine membranes, AlPcN(4) appeared to bind more effectively than the negatively charged tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS(4)), which was attributed to the enhancement of the coordination interaction of aluminum with the phosphate moiety of phosphatidylcholine by the electric field created by positively charged groups of AlPcN(4). The inhibitory effect of fluoride ions on the membrane binding of both AlPcN(4) and AlPcS(4) supported the essential role of aluminum-phosphate coordination in the interaction of these phthalocyanines with phospholipids. The presence of negative or positive charges on the surface of lipid membranes modulated the binding of AlPcN(4) and AlPcS(4) in accord with the character (attraction or repulsion) of the electrostatic interaction, thus showing the significant contribution of the latter to the phthalocyanine adsorption on lipid bilayers. The data on the photodynamic activity of AlPcN(4) and AlPcS(4) as measured by sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes correlated well with the binding data obtained by FCS and IFC techniques. The reduced photodynamic activity of AlPcN(4) with neutral membranes violating this correlation was attributed to the concentration quenching of singlet excited states as proved by the data on the AlPcN(4) fluorescence quenching.  相似文献   

2.
Photosensitized efficacy of tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines of zinc, aluminum and nickel (ZnPcS4, AlPcS4 and NiPcS4, respectively) as studied by gramicidin channel (gA) photoinactivation was compared with adsorption of the dyes on the surface of a bilayer lipid membrane as measured by the inner field compensation method. The adsorption of the negatively charged phthalocyanines on diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) membranes led to formation of a negative boundary potential difference between the membrane/water interfaces. Good correlation was shown between the photodynamic activity and the membrane binding of the three metallophthalocyanines. ZnPcS4 appeared to be the most potent of these photosensitizers, while NiPcS4 was completely ineffective. All of these phthalocyanines displayed no binding and negligible gA photoinactivation with membranes formed of glycerol monooleate (GMO), whereas Rose Bengal exhibited significant binding and photodynamic efficacy with GMO membranes. Gramicidin photoinactivation in the presence of AlPcS4, being insensitive to the ionic strength of the bathing solution, was inhibited by fluoride and attenuated by phosphate ions. A blue shift of the fluorescence peak position of ZnPcS4 dissolved in ethanol was elicited by phosphate, similarly to fluoride, which was indicative of the coordination interaction of these ions with the central metal atom of the phthalocyanine macrocycle. This interaction was enhanced in the medium modeling the water-membrane interface. The results obtained imply that binding of tetrasulfonated metallophthalocyanines to phospholipid membranes is determined primarily by metal-phosphate coordination.  相似文献   

3.
A study of the properties of water-soluble tetrasubstituted cationic aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN4) revealed efficient binding of this photosensitizer to phospholipid membranes as compared with tetrasulfonated aluminum and zinc phthalocyanine complexes. This also manifested itself in enhanced photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 as measured by the photosensitized damage of gramicidin channels in a planar bilayer lipid membrane. The largest difference in the photodynamic activity of cationic and anionic phthalocyanines was observed in a membrane containing negatively charged lipids, thereby pointing to significant contribution of electrostatic interactions to the binding of photosensitizers to a membrane. Fluoride anions suppressed the photodynamic activity and binding to membrane of both tetraanionic and tetracationic aluminum phthalocyanines, which supports our hypothesis that interaction of charged metallophthalocyanines with phospholipid membranes is mostly determined by coordination of the central metal atom with the phosphate group of lipid.  相似文献   

4.
Plantaricin A (plA) is a 26-residue bacteria-produced peptide pheromone with membrane-permeabilizing antimicrobial activity. In this study the interaction of plA with membranes is shown to be highly dependent on the membrane lipid composition. PlA bound readily to zwitterionic 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) monolayers and liposomes, yet without significantly penetrating into these membranes. The presence of cholesterol attenuated the intercalation of plA into SOPC monolayers. The association of plA to phosphatidylcholine was, however, sufficient to induce membrane permeabilization, with nanomolar concentrations of the peptide triggering dye leakage from SOPC liposomes. The addition of the negatively charged phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol POPG (SOPC/POPG; molar ratio 8:2) enhanced the membrane penetration of the peptide, as revealed by (i) peptide-induced increment in the surface pressure of lipid monolayers, (ii) increase in diphenylhexatriene (DPH) emission anisotropy measured for bilayers, and (iii) fluorescence characteristics of the two Trps of plA in the presence of liposomes, measured as such as well as in the presence of different quenchers. Despite deeper intercalation of plA into the SOPC/POPG lipid bilayer, much less peptide-induced dye leakage was observed for these liposomes than for the SOPC liposomes. Further changes in the mode of interaction of plA with lipids were evident when also the zwitterionic phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolaminne (POPE) was present (SOPC/POPG/POPE, molar ratio 3:2:5), thus suggesting increase in membrane spontaneous negative curvature to affect the mode of association of this peptide with lipid bilayer. PlA induced more efficient aggregation of the SOPC/POPG and SOPC/POPG/POPE liposomes than of the SOPC liposomes, which could explain the attenuated peptide-induced dye leakage from the former liposomes. At micromolar concentrations, plA killed human leukemic T-cells by both necrosis and apoptosis. Interestingly, plA formed supramolecular protein-lipid amyloid-like fibers upon binding to negatively charged phospholipid-containing membranes, suggesting a possible mechanistic connection between fibril formation and the cytotoxicity of plA.  相似文献   

5.
We applied precise densimetry and ultrasound velocimetry methods to study the interaction of a synthetic α-helical transmembrane peptide, acetyl-K2-L24-K2-amide (L24), with model bilayer lipid membranes. The large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) utilized were composed of a homologous series of n-saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (PCs). PCs whose hydrocarbon chains contained from 13 to 16 carbon atoms, thus producing phospholipid bilayers of different thicknesses and gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperatures. This allowed us to analyze how the difference between the hydrophobic length of the peptide and the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayer influences the thermodynamical and mechanical properties of the membranes. We showed that the incorporation of L24 decreases the temperature and cooperativity of the main phase transition of all LUVs studied. The presence of L24 in the bilayer also caused an increase of the specific volume and of the volume compressibility in the gel state bilayers. In the liquid crystalline state, the peptide decreases the specific volume at relatively higher peptide concentration (mole ratio L24:PC = 1:50). The overall volume compressibility of the peptide-containing lipid bilayers in the liquid-crystalline state was in general higher in comparison with pure membranes. There was, however, a tendency for the volume compressibility of these lipid bilayers to decrease with higher peptide content in comparison with bilayers of lower peptide concentration. For one lipid composition, we also compared the thermodynamical and mechanical properties of LUVs and large multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) with and without L24. As expected, a higher cooperativity of the changes of the thermodynamical and mechanical parameters took place for MLVs in comparison with LUVs. These results are in agreement with previously reported DSC and 2H NMR spectroscopy study of the interaction of the L24 and structurally related peptides with phosphatidylcholine bilayers. An apparent discrepancy between 2H NMR spectroscopy and compressibility data in the liquid crystalline state may be connected with the complex and anisotropic nature of macroscopic mechanical properties of the membranes. The observed changes in membrane mechanical properties induced by the presence of L24 suggest that around each peptide a distorted region exists that involves at least 2 layers of lipid molecules.  相似文献   

6.
The novel symmetric squarylium derivative SQ-1 has been synthesized and tested for its sensitivity to the formation of protein-lipid complexes. SQ-1 binding to the model membranes composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its mixtures with anionic lipid cardiolipin (CL) in different molar ratios was found to be controlled mainly by hydrophobic interactions. Lysozyme (Lz) and ribonuclease A (RNase) exerted an influence on the probe association with lipid vesicles resulting presumably from the competition between SQ-1 and the proteins for bilayer free volume and modification of its properties. The magnitude of this effect was much higher for lysozyme which may stem from the amphipathy of protein alpha-helix involved in the membrane binding. Varying membrane composition provides evidence for the dye sensitivity to both hydrophobic and electrostatic protein-lipid interactions. Fluorescence anisotropy studies uncovered the restriction of SQ-1 rotational mobility in lipid environment in the presence of Lz and RNase being indicative of the incorporation of the proteins into bilayer interior. The results of binding, fluorescence quenching and kinetic experiments suggested lysozyme-induced local lipid demixing upon protein association with negatively charged membranes with threshold concentration of CL for the lipid demixing being 10 mol%.  相似文献   

7.
Photosensitized efficacy of tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines of zinc, aluminum and nickel (ZnPcS(4), AlPcS(4) and NiPcS(4), respectively) as studied by gramicidin channel (gA) photoinactivation was compared with adsorption of the dyes on the surface of a bilayer lipid membrane as measured by the inner field compensation method. The adsorption of the negatively charged phthalocyanines on diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) membranes led to formation of a negative boundary potential difference between the membrane/water interfaces. Good correlation was shown between the photodynamic activity and the membrane binding of the three metallophthalocyanines. ZnPcS(4) appeared to be the most potent of these photosensitizers, while NiPcS(4) was completely ineffective. All of these phthalocyanines displayed no binding and negligible gA photoinactivation with membranes formed of glycerol monooleate (GMO), whereas Rose Bengal exhibited significant binding and photodynamic efficacy with GMO membranes. Gramicidin photoinactivation in the presence of AlPcS(4), being insensitive to the ionic strength of the bathing solution, was inhibited by fluoride and attenuated by phosphate ions. A blue shift of the fluorescence peak position of ZnPcS(4) dissolved in ethanol was elicited by phosphate, similarly to fluoride, which was indicative of the coordination interaction of these ions with the central metal atom of the phthalocyanine macrocycle. This interaction was enhanced in the medium modeling the water-membrane interface. The results obtained imply that binding of tetrasulfonated metallophthalocyanines to phospholipid membranes is determined primarily by metal-phosphate coordination.  相似文献   

8.
The C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax (Bax-C) is supposed to act as a membrane anchor motif when Bax is activated leading to programmed cell death. A synthetic peptide which imitates this domain has been used to study the mechanism of peptide-phospholipid interaction. We have used static and MAS-NMR techniques to show that the interaction of Bax-C with membranes is modulated by the presence of a negatively charged phospholipid like phosphatidylglycerol. Bax-C slightly shifted upfield the 31P resonances coming from phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. However the width of the resonance peaks was considerably higher when phosphatidylglycerol was present. Bax-C substantially decreased the T1 relaxation times of phosphatidylglycerol and those of phosphatidylcholine when mixtured with phosphatidylglycerol, but T1 values were not decreased when phosphatidylcholine was the only phospholipid present in the membrane. 13C-MAS-NMR showed that T1 values were decreased when Bax-C was incorporated into the lipid vesicles and this reduction affected similarly to carbons located in different regions of the membrane when the only phospholipid present was phosphatidylcholine. However, when phosphatidylglycerol was also present, the decrease in T1 affected considerably more to some carbons in the polar region. These results indicate that Bax-C interacts differently with the polar part of the membrane depending on whether phosphatidylglycerol is present or not, suggesting that an electrostatic interaction of Bax-C with the membrane determines the location of this domain. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the Trp residues of Bax-C were placed in a microenvironment more hydrophobic and less accessible to quenching by acrylamide when phosphatidylglycerol was present.  相似文献   

9.
Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was reconstituted into artificial lipid membrane containing various charged lipid compositions. The proton pumping activity of BR under flash and continuous illumination, proton permeability across membrane, as well as the decay kinetics of the photocycle intermediate M412 were studied. The results showed that lipid charges would significantly affect the orientation of BR inserted into lipid membranes. In liposomes containing anionic lipids, BRs were more likely to take natural orientation as in living cells. In neutral or positively charged liposomes, most BRs were reversely assembled, assuming an inside out orientation. Moreover, the lipids charges also affect BR’s M intermediate kinetics, especially the slow component in M intermediate decay. The half-life M412s increased significantly in BRs in liposomes containing cationic lipids, while decreased in those in anionic liposomes.  相似文献   

10.
Alamethicin is a 20-residue, hydrophobic, helical peptide, which forms voltage-sensitive ion channels in lipid membranes. The helicogenic, nitroxyl amino acid TOAC was substituted isosterically for Aib at residue positions 1, 8, or 16 in a F50/5 alamethicin analog to enable EPR studies. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy was used to investigate the water exposure of TOAC-alamethicin introduced into membranes of saturated or unsaturated diacyl phosphatidylcholines that were dispersed in D2O. Echo-detected EPR spectra were used to assess the degree of assembly of the peptide in the membrane, via the instantaneous diffusion from intermolecular spin-spin interactions. The profile of residue exposure to water differs between membranes of saturated and unsaturated lipids. In monounsaturated dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, D2O-ESEEM intensities decrease from TOAC1 to TOAC8 and TOAC16 but not uniformly. This is consistent with a transmembrane orientation for the protoassembled state, in which TOAC16 is located in the bilayer leaflet opposite to that of TOAC1 and TOAC8. Relative to the monomer in fluid bilayers, assembled alamethicin is disposed asymmetrically about the bilayer midplane. In saturated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, the D2O-ESEEM intensity is greatest for TOAC8, indicating a more superficial location for alamethicin, which correlates with the difference in orientation between gel- and fluid-phase membranes found by conventional EPR of TOAC-alamethicin in aligned phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Increasing alamethicin/lipid ratio in saturated phosphatidylcholine shifts the profile of water exposure toward that with unsaturated lipid, consistent with proposals of a critical concentration for switching between the two different membrane-associated states.  相似文献   

11.
The pH-dependent insertion of pHLIP across membranes is proving to be a useful property for targeting acidic tissues or tumors and delivering drugs attached to its C-terminus. It also serves as a model peptide for studies of protein insertion into membranes, so further elucidation of the insertion mechanism of pHLIP and its features is desirable. We examine how the peptide perturbs a model phosphatidylcholine membrane and how it associates with the lipid bilayer using an array of fluorescence techniques, including fluorescence anisotropy measurements of TMA-DPH anchored in bilayers, quenching of pHLIP fluorescence by brominated lipids and acrylamide, and measurements of energy transfer between aromatic residues of pHLIP and TMA-DPH. When pHLIP is bound to the surface of bilayers near neutral pH, the membrane integrity is preserved whereas the elastic properties of bilayers are changed as reported by an increase of membrane viscosity. When it is inserted, there is little perturbation of the lipids. The results also suggest that pHLIP can bind to the membrane surface in a shallow or a deep mode depending on the phase state of the lipids. Using parallax analysis, the change of the penetration depth of pHLIP was estimated to be 0.4 Å from the bilayer center and 2.8 Å from the membrane surface after the liquid-to-gel phase transition.  相似文献   

12.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptides in the central nervous system of mammals. It belongs to the best-conserved peptides in nature, i.e., the amino acid sequences of even evolutionary widely separated species are very similar to each other. Using porcine NPY, which differs from human NPY only at position 17 (a leucine residue exchanged for a methionine), labeled with a TOAC spin probe at the 2nd, 32nd, or 34th positions of the peptide backbone, the membrane binding and penetration of NPY was determined using EPR and NMR spectroscopy. The vesicular membranes were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine at varying mixing ratios. From the analysis of the EPR line shapes, the spectral contributions of free, dimerized, and membrane bound NPY could be separated. This analysis was further supported by quenching experiments, which selected the contributions of the bound NPY fraction. The results of this study give rise to a model where the α-helical part of NPY (amino acids 13-36) penetrates the membrane interface. The unstructured N-terminal part (amino acids 1-12) extends into the aqueous phase with occasional contacts with the lipid headgroup region. Besides the mixing ratio of zwitterionic and negatively charged phospholipid species, the electrostatic peptide membrane interactions are influenced by the pH value, which determines the net charge of the peptide resulting in a modified membrane binding affinity. The results of these variations indicate that NPY binding to phospholipid membranes depends strongly on the electrostatic interactions. An estimation of the transfer energy of the peptide from aqueous solution to the membrane interface ΔG supports the preferential interaction of NPY with negatively charged membranes.  相似文献   

13.
Cannabinoids are compounds that can modulate neuronal functions and immune responses via their activity at the CB1 receptor. We used 2H NMR order parameters and relaxation rate determination to delineate the behavior of magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers in the presence of several structurally distinct cannabinoid ligands. THC (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) and WIN-55,212-2 were found to lower the phase transition temperature of the DMPC and to destabilize their acyl chains leading to a lower average SCD (≈ 0.13), while methanandamide and CP-55,940 exhibited unusual properties within the lipid bilayer resulting in a greater average SCD (≈ 0.14) at the top of the phospholipid upper chain. The CB1 antagonist AM281 had average SCD values that were higher than the pure DMPC lipids, indicating a stabilization of the lipid bilayer. R1Z versus |SCD|2 plots indicated that the membrane fluidity is increased in the presence of THC and WIN-55,212-2. The interaction of CP-55,940 with a variety of zwitterionic and charged membranes was also assessed. The unusual effect of CP-55,940 was present only in bicelles composed of DMPC. These studies strongly suggest that cannabinoid action on the membrane depends upon membrane composition as well as the structure of the cannabinoid ligands.  相似文献   

14.
The cationic β-sheet cyclic tetradecapeptide cyclo[VKLdKVdYPLKVKLdYP] (GS14dK4) is a diastereomeric lysine ring-size analog of the potent naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) which exhibits enhanced antimicrobial but markedly reduced hemolytic activity compared to GS itself. We have previously studied the binding of GS14dK4 to various phospholipid bilayer model membranes using isothermal titration calorimetry [Abraham, T. et al. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 2103-2112]. In the present study, we compare the ability of GS14dK4 to bind to and disrupt these same phospholipid model membranes by employing a fluorescent dye leakage assay to determine the ability of this peptide to permeabilize large unilamellar vesicles. We find that in general, the ability of GS14dK4 to bind to and to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers of different compositions are not well correlated. In particular, the binding affinity of GS14dK4 varies markedly with the charge and to some extent with the polar headgroup structure of the phospholipid and with the cholesterol content of the model membrane. Specifically, this peptide binds much more tightly to anionic than to zwitterionic phospholipids and much less tightly to cholesterol-containing than to cholesterol-free model membranes. In addition, the maximum extent of binding of GS14dK4 can also vary considerably with phospholipid composition in a parallel fashion. In contrast, the ability of this peptide to permeabilize phospholipid vesicles is only weakly dependent on phospholipid charge, polar headgroup structure or cholesterol content. We provide tentative explanations for the observed lack of a correlation between the affinity and extent of GS14dK4 binding to, and degree of disruption of the structure and integrity of, phospholipid bilayers membranes. We also present evidence that the lack of correlation between these two parameters may be a general phenomenon among antimicrobial peptides. Finally, we demonstrate that the affinity of binding of GS14dK4 to various phospholipid bilayer membranes is much more strongly correlated with the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of this peptide than with its effect on the rate and extent of dye leakage in these model membrane systems.  相似文献   

15.
In this study, we used cholestatrienol (CTL) as a fluorescent reporter molecule to study sterol-rich L(o) domains in complex lipid bilayers. CTL is a fluorescent cholesterol analog that mimics the behavior of cholesterol well. The ability of 12SLPC to quench the fluorescence of cholestatrienol gives a measure of the amount of sterol included in L(o) domains in mixed lipid membranes. The stability of sterol-rich domains formed in complex lipid mixtures containing saturated sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, or galactosylceramide as potential domain-forming lipids were studied. The amount of sterol associated with sterol-rich domains seemed to always increase with increasing temperature. The quenching efficiency was highly dependent on the domain-forming lipid present in complex lipid mixtures. Sphingomyelins formed stable sterol-enriched domains and were able to shield CTL from quenching better than the other lipids included in this study. The saturated phosphatidylcholines also formed sterol-rich domains, but the quenching efficiency in membranes with these was higher than with sphingomyelins and the domains melted at lower temperatures. PGalCer was not able to form sterol-enriched domains. However, we found that PGalCer stabilized sterol-rich domains formed in PSM-containing bilayers. Using a fluorescent ceramide analog, we also demonstrated that N-palmitoyl-ceramide displaced the sterol from sphingolipid-rich domains in mixed bilayer membranes.  相似文献   

16.
Experiments directed to measure the interaction of lysozyme with liposomes consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) have been conducted by monitoring both protein and lipid fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy of the protein. The binding of lysozyme to the unilamellar vesicles was quantified using a novel method of analysis in which the fractional contribution at moderate binding conditions is determined from either total fluorescence decay or anisotropy decay curves of tryptophan at limiting binding conditions. In the energy transfer experiments PC and PS lipids labelled with two pyrene acyl chains served as energy acceptors of the excited tryptophan residues in lysozyme. The binding was strongly dependent on the molar fraction of negatively charged PS in neutral PC membranes and on the ionic strength. Changes in the tryptophan fluorescence decay characteristics were found to be connected with long correlation times, indicating conformational rearrangements induced by binding of the protein to these lipid membranes. The dynamics of membrane bound protein appeared to be dependent on the physical state of the membrane. Independent of protein fluorescence studies, formation of a protein-membrane complex can also be observed from the lipid properties of the system. The interaction of lysozyme with di-pyrenyl-labelled phosphatidylserine in anionic PS/PC membranes resulted in a substantial decrease of the intramolecular excimer formation, while the excimer formation of dipyrenyl-labelled phosphatidylcholine in neutral PC membranes barely changed in the presence of lysozyme.Abbreviations dipyr4 sn-1,2-(pyrenylbutyl) - dipyr10 sn-1,2-(pyrenyldecanoyl). - DMPC dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine - DOPC dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine - DPPC dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine - DPPC dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine - PC phosphatidylcholine - PS phosphatidylserine Correspondence to: A. J. W. G. Visser  相似文献   

17.
The pulsed field gradient (pfg)-NMR method for measurements of translational diffusion of molecules in macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers is described. This technique is proposed to have an appreciable potential for investigations in the field of lipid and membrane biology. Transport of molecules in the plane of the bilayer can be successfully studied, as well as lateral phase separation of lipids and their dynamics within the bilayer organizations. Lateral diffusion coefficients depend on lipid packing and acyl chain ordering and investigations of order parameters of perdeuterated acyl chains, using 2H NMR quadrupole splittings, are useful complements. In this review we summarize some of our recent achievements obtained on lipid membranes. In particular, bilayers exhibiting two-phase coexistence of liquid disordered (ld) and liquid ordered (lo) phases are considered in detail. Methods for obtaining good oriented lipid bilayers, necessary for the pfg-NMR method to be efficiently used, are also briefly described. Among our major results, besides determinations of ld and lo phases, belongs the finding that the lateral diffusion is the same for all components, independent of the molecular structure (including cholesterol (CHOL)), if they reside in the same domain or phase in the membrane. Furthermore, quite unexpectedly CHOL seems to partition into the ldand lo phases to roughly the same extent, indicating that CHOL has no strong preference for any of these phases, i.e. CHOL seems to have similar interactions with all of the lipids. We propose that the lateral phase separation in bilayers containing one high-Tm and one low-Tm lipid together with CHOL is driven by the increasing difficulty of incorporating an unsaturated or prenyl lipid into the highly ordered bilayer formed by a saturated lipid and CHOL, i.e. the phase transition is entropy driven to keep the disorder of the hydrocarbon chains of the unsaturated lipid.  相似文献   

18.
Alamethicin F50/5 is a hydrophobic peptide that is devoid of charged residues and that induces voltage-dependent ion channels in lipid membranes. The peptide backbone is likely to be involved in the ion conduction pathway. Electron spin-echo spectroscopy of alamethicin F50/5 analogs in which a selected Aib residue (at position n = 1, 8, or 16) is replaced by the TOAC amino-acid spin label was used to study torsional dynamics of the peptide backbone in association with phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. Rapid librational motions of limited angular amplitude were observed at each of the three TOAC sites by recording echo-detected spectra as a function of echo delay time, 2τ. Simulation of the time-resolved spectra, combined with conventional EPR measurements of the librational amplitude, shows that torsional fluctuations of the peptide backbone take place on the subnanosecond to nanosecond timescale, with little temperature dependence. Associated fluctuations in polar fields from the peptide could facilitate ion permeation.  相似文献   

19.
The interaction of the 36 amino acid neuropeptide Y (NPY) with liposomes was studied using the intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of NPY and an NPY fragment comprising amino acids 18–36. The vesicular membranes were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine at varying mixing ratios. From the experimentally measured binding curves, the standard Gibbs free energy for the peptide transfer from aqueous solution to the lipid membrane was calculated to be around ?30 kJ/mol for membrane mixtures containing physiological amounts of acidic lipids at pH 5. The effective charge of the peptide depends on the pH of the buffer and is about half of its theoretical net charge. The results were confirmed using the fluorescence of the NPY analogue [Trp32]-NPY. Further, the position of NPY’s α-helix in the membrane was estimated from the intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of NPY, from quenching experiments with spin-labelled phospholipids using [Trp32]-NPY, and from 1H magic-angle spinning NMR relaxation measurements using spin-labelled [Ala31, TOAC32]-NPY. The results suggest that the immersion depth of NPY into the membrane is triggered by the membrane composition. The α-helix of NPY is located in the upper chain region of zwitterionic membranes but its position is shifted to the glycerol region in negatively charged membranes. For membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, an intermediate position of the α-helix is observed.  相似文献   

20.
The effect of ionic substituents in zinc and aluminum phthalocyanine molecules and of membrane surface charge on the interaction of dyes with artificial membranes and enterobacterial cells, as well as on photosensitization efficiency was studied. It has been shown that increasing the number of positively charged substituents enhances the extent of phthalocyanine binding to Escherichia coli cells. This, along with the high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation, determines efficient photodynamic inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria by zinc and aluminum octacationic phthalocyanines. The effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations and pH on photodynamic inactivation of enterobacteria in the presence of octacationic zinc phthalocyanine has been studied. It has been shown that effects resulting in lowering negative charge on outer membrane protect bacteria against photoinactivation, which confirms the crucial role in this process of the electrostatic interaction of the photosensitizer with the cell wall. Electrostatic nature of binding is consistent with mainly electrostatic character of dye interactions with artificial membranes of different composition. Lower sensitivity of Proteus mirabilis to photodynamic inactivation, compared to that of E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis, due to low affinity of the cationic dye to the cells of this species, was found.  相似文献   

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