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1.
Base excision DNA repair (BER) is necessary for removal of damaged nucleobases from the genome and their replacement with normal nucleobases. BER is initiated by DNA glycosylases, the enzymes that cleave the N-glycosidic bonds of damaged deoxynucleotides. Human endonuclease VIII-like protein 2 (hNEIL2), belonging to the helix–two-turn–helix structural superfamily of DNA glycosylases, is an enzyme uniquely specific for oxidized pyrimidines in non-canonical DNA substrates such as bubbles and loops. The structure of hNEIL2 has not been solved; its closest homologs with known structures are NEIL2 from opossum and from giant mimivirus. Here we analyze the conformational dynamics of free hNEIL2 using a combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. We show that a prominent feature of vertebrate NEIL2 – a large insert in its N-terminal domain absent from other DNA glycosylases – is unstructured in solution. It was suggested that helix–two-turn–helix DNA glycosylases undergo open–close transition upon DNA binding, with the large movement of their N- and C-terminal domains, but the open conformation has been elusive to capture. Our data point to the open conformation as favorable for free hNEIL2 in solution. Overall, our results are consistent with the view of hNEIL2 as a conformationally flexible protein, which may be due to its participation in the repair of non-canonical DNA structures and/or to the involvement in functional and regulatory protein–protein interactions.  相似文献   

2.
13 MBD-containing genes (AtMBD1-13) have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana so far, however, their DNA binding ability is still controversial. Here, we systematically measured the DNA binding affinities of these MBDs by ITC and EMSA binding assays, except for those of pseudogenes AtMBD3 and AtMBD13, and found that only AtMBD6 and AtMBD7 function as methylated DNA readers. We also found that the MBD of AtMBD5 exhibits very weak binding to methylated DNA compared to that of AtMBD6. To further investigate the structural basis of AtMBDs in binding to methylated DNA, we determined the complex structure of the AtMBD6 MBD with a 12mer mCG DNA and the apo structure of the AtMBD5 MBD. Structural analysis coupled with mutagenesis studies indicated that, in addition to the conserved arginine fingers contributing to the DNA binding specificity, the residues located in the loop1 and α1 are also essential for the methylated DNA binding of these MBDs in Arabidopsis thaliana, which explains why AtMBD5 MBD and the other AtMBDs display very weak or no binding to methylated DNA. Thus, our study here systematically demonstrates the DNA binding ability of the MBDs in Arabidopsis thaliana, which also provides a general guideline in understanding the DNA binding ability of the MBDs in other plants as a whole.  相似文献   

3.
The H3K4me3 chromatin modification, a hallmark of promoters of actively transcribed genes, is dynamically removed by the KDM5 family of histone demethylases. The KDM5 demethylases have a number of accessory domains, two of which, ARID and PHD1, lie between the segments of the catalytic domain. KDM5C, which has a unique role in neural development, harbors a number of mutations adjacent to its accessory domains that cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). The roles of these accessory domains remain unknown, limiting an understanding of how XLID mutations affect KDM5C activity. Through in vitro binding and kinetic studies using nucleosomes, we find that while the ARID domain is required for efficient nucleosome demethylation, the PHD1 domain alone has an inhibitory role in KDM5C catalysis. In addition, the unstructured linker region between the ARID and PHD1 domains interacts with PHD1 and is necessary for nucleosome binding. Our data suggests a model in which the PHD1 domain inhibits DNA recognition by KDM5C. This inhibitory effect is relieved by the H3 tail, enabling recognition of flanking DNA on the nucleosome. Importantly, we find that XLID mutations adjacent to the ARID and PHD1 domains break this regulation by enhancing DNA binding, resulting in the loss of specificity of substrate chromatin recognition and rendering demethylase activity lower in the presence of flanking DNA. Our findings suggest a model by which specific XLID mutations could alter chromatin recognition and enable euchromatin-specific dysregulation of demethylation by KDM5C.  相似文献   

4.
Chromosome ends are protected by guanosine-rich telomere DNA that forms stable G-quadruplex (G4) structures. The heterodimeric POT1-TPP1 complex interacts specifically with telomere DNA to shield it from illicit DNA damage repair and to resolve secondary structure that impedes telomere extension. The mechanism by which POT1-TPP1 accomplishes these tasks is poorly understood. Here, we establish the kinetic framework for POT1-TPP1 binding and unfolding of telomere G4 DNA. Our data identify two modes of POT1-TPP1 destabilization of G4 DNA that are governed by protein concentration. At low concentrations, POT1-TPP1 passively captures transiently unfolded G4s. At higher concentrations, POT1-TPP1 proteins bind to G4s to actively destabilize the DNA structures. Cancer-associated POT1-TPP1 mutations impair multiple reaction steps in this process, resulting in less efficient destabilization of G4 structures. The mechanistic insight highlights the importance of cell cycle dependent expression and localization of the POT1-TPP1 complex and distinguishes diverse functions of this complex in telomere maintenance.  相似文献   

5.
The helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily of base excision repair DNA glycosylases is composed of multiple phylogenetically diverse enzymes that are capable of excising varying spectra of oxidatively and methyl-damaged bases. Although these DNA repair glycosylases have been widely studied through genetic, biochemical, and biophysical approaches, the evolutionary relationships of different HhH homologs and the extent to which they are conserved across phylogeny remain enigmatic. We provide an evolutionary framework for this pervasive and versatile superfamily of DNA glycosylases. Six HhH gene families (named AlkA: alkyladenine glycosylase; MpgII: N-methylpurine glycosylase II; MutY/Mig: A/G-specific adenine glycosylase/mismatch glycosylase; Nth: endonuclease III; OggI: 8-oxoguanine glycosylase I; and OggII: 8-oxoguanine glycosylase II) are identified through phylogenetic analysis of 234 homologs found in 94 genomes (16 archaea, 64 bacteria, and 14 eukaryotes). The number of homologs in each gene family varies from 117 in the Nth family (nearly every genome surveyed harbors at least one Nth homolog) to only five in the divergent OggII family (all from archaeal genomes). Sequences from all three domains of life are included in four of the six gene families, suggesting that the HhH superfamily diversified very early in evolution. The phylogeny provides evidence for multiple lineage-specific gene duplication events, most of which involve eukaryotic homologs in the Nth and AlkA gene families. We observe extensive variation in the number of HhH superfamily glycosylase genes present in different genomes, possibly reflecting major differences among species in the mechanisms and pathways by which damaged bases are repaired and/or disparities in the basic rates and spectra of mutation experienced by different genomes.  相似文献   

6.
Poxviruses are enveloped viruses with a linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral DNA synthesis is achieved by a functional DNA polymerase holoenzyme composed of three essential proteins. For vaccinia virus (VACV) these are E9, the catalytic subunit, a family B DNA polymerase, and the heterodimeric processivity factor formed by D4 and A20. The A20 protein links D4 to the catalytic subunit. High-resolution structures have been obtained for the VACV D4 protein in complex with an N-terminal fragment of A20 as well as for E9. In addition, biochemical studies provided evidence that a poxvirus-specific insertion (insert 3) in E9 interacts with the C-terminal residues of A20. Here, we provide solution structures of two different VACV A20 C-terminal constructs containing residues 304–426, fused at their C-terminus to either a BAP (Biotin Acceptor Peptide)-tag or a short peptide containing the helix of E9 insert 3. Together with results from titration studies, these structures shed light on the molecular interface between the catalytic subunit and the processivity factor component A20. The interface comprises hydrophobic residues conserved within the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. Finally, we constructed a HADDOCK model of the VACV A20304-426-E9 complex, which is in excellent accordance with previous experimental data.  相似文献   

7.
An α-glucosidase from Aspergillus sojae, AsojAgdL, exhibits strong transglucosylation activity to produce α-1,6-glucosidic linkages. The most remarkable structural feature of AsojAgdL is that residues 457–560 of AsojAgdL (designated the NC sequence) is not conserved in other glycoside hydrolase family 31 enzymes, and part of this NC sequence is proteolytically cleaved during its maturation. In this study, the enzyme was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and electrophoretic analysis indicated that the recombinant enzyme, rAsojAgdL, consisted of two polypeptide chains, as observed in the case of the enzyme produced in an Aspergillus strain. The crystal structure of rAsojAgdL was determined in complex with the substrate analog trehalose. Electron density corresponding to residues 496–515 of the NC sequence was not seen, and there were no α-helices or β-strands except for a short α-helix in the structures of residues 457–495 and residues 516–560, both of which belong to the NC sequence. The residues 457–495 and the residues 516–560 both formed extra components of the catalytic domain. The residues 457–495 constituted the entrance of the catalytic pocket of rAsojAgdL, and Gly467, Asp468, Pro469, and Pro470 in the NC sequence were located within 4 Å of Trp400, a key residue involved in binding of the substrate. The results suggest that the proteolytic processing of the NC sequence is related to the formation of the catalytic pocket of AsojAgdL.  相似文献   

8.
The Smc5/6 complex facilitates chromosome replication and DNA break repair. Within this complex, a subcomplex composed of Nse1, Nse3 and Nse4 is thought to play multiple roles through DNA binding and regulating ATP-dependent activities of the complex. However, how the Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 subcomplex carries out these multiple functions remain unclear. To address this question, we determine the crystal structure of the Xenopus laevis Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 subcomplex at 1.7 Å resolution and examine how it interacts with DNA. Our structural analyses show that the Nse1-Nse3 dimer adopts a closed conformation and forms three interfaces with a segment of Nse4, forcing it into a Z-shaped conformation. The Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 structure provides an explanation for how the lung disease immunodeficiency and chromosome breakage syndrome-causing mutations could dislodge Nse4 from Nse1-Nse3. Our DNA binding and mutational analyses reveal that the N-terminal and the middle region of Nse4 contribute to DNA interaction and cell viability. Integrating our data with previous crosslink mass spectrometry data, we propose potential roles of the Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 complex in binding DNA within the Smc5/6 complex.  相似文献   

9.
Pseudomonas phages are increasingly important biomedicines for phage therapy, but little is known about how these viruses package DNA. This paper explores the terminase subunits from the Myoviridae E217, a Pseudomonas-phage used in an experimental cocktail to eradicate P. aeruginosa in vitro and in animal models. We identified the large (TerL) and small (TerS) terminase subunits in two genes ~58 kbs away from each other in the E217 genome. TerL presents a classical two-domain architecture, consisting of an N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal nuclease domain arranged into a bean-shaped tertiary structure. A 2.05 Å crystal structure of the C-terminal domain revealed an RNase H-like fold with two magnesium ions in the nuclease active site. Mutations in TerL residues involved in magnesium coordination had a dominant-negative effect on phage growth. However, the two ions identified in the active site were too far from each other to promote two-metal-ion catalysis, suggesting a conformational change is required for nuclease activity. We also determined a 3.38 Å cryo-EM reconstruction of E217 TerS that revealed a ring-like decamer, departing from the most common nonameric quaternary structure observed thus far. E217 TerS contains both N-terminal helix-turn-helix motifs enriched in basic residues and a central channel lined with basic residues large enough to accommodate double-stranded DNA. Overexpression of TerS caused a more than a 4-fold reduction of E217 burst size, suggesting a catalytic amount of the protein is required for packaging. Together, these data expand the molecular repertoire of viral terminase subunits to Pseudomonas-phages used for phage therapy.  相似文献   

10.
The repair of T:G mismatches in DNA is key for maintaining bacterial restriction/modification systems and gene silencing in higher eukaryotes. T:G mismatch repair can be initiated by a specific mismatch glycosylase (MIG) that is homologous to the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) DNA repair enzymes. Here, we present a 2.0 A resolution crystal structure and complementary mutagenesis results for this thermophilic HhH MIG enzyme. The results suggest that MIG distorts the target thymine nucleotide by twisting the thymine base approximately 90 degrees away from its normal anti position within DNA. We propose that functionally significant differences exist in DNA repair enzyme extrahelical nucleotide binding and catalysis that are characteristic of whether the target base is damaged or is a normal base within a mispair. These results explain why pure HhH DNA glycosylases and combined glycosylase/AP lyases cannot be interconverted by simply altering their functional group chemistry, and how broad-specificity DNA glycosylase enzymes may weaken the glycosylic linkage to allow a variety of damaged DNA bases to be excised.  相似文献   

11.
12.
Na+/H+ antiporters comprise a super-family (CPA) of membrane proteins that are found in all kingdoms of life and are essential in cellular homeostasis of pH, Na+ and volume. Their activity is strictly dependent on pH, a property that underpins their role in pH homeostasis. While several human homologues have long been drug targets, NhaA of Escherichia coli has become the paradigm for this class of secondary active transporters as NhaA crystal structure provided insight into the architecture of this molecular machine. However, the mechanism of the strict pH dependence of NhaA is missing. Here, as a follow up of a recent evolutionary analysis that identified a ‘CPA motif’, we rationally designed three E. coli NhaA mutants: D133S, I134T, and the double mutant D133S-I134T. Exploring growth phenotype, transport activity and Li+-binding of the mutants, we revealed that Asp133 does not participate directly in proton binding, nor does it directly dictate the pH-dependent transport of NhaA. Strikingly, the variant I134T lost some of the pH control, and the D133S-Il134T double mutant retained Li+ binding in a pH independent fashion. Concurrent to loss of pH control, these mutants bound Li+ more strongly than the WT. Both positions are in close vicinity to the ion-binding site of the antiporter, attributing the results to electrostatic interaction between these residues and Asp164 of the ion-binding site. This is consistent with pH sensing resulting from direct coupling between cation binding and deprotonation in Asp164, which applies also to other CPA antiporters that are involved in human diseases.  相似文献   

13.
Mutations in K-Ras GTPase replacing Gly12 with either Asp or Val are common in cancer. These mutations decelerate intrinsic and catalyzed GTP hydrolysis, leading to accumulation of K-Ras-GTP in cells. Signaling cascades initiated by K-Ras-GTP promote cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Despite functional differences between the most frequent G12D mutation and the most aggressive and chemotherapy resistant G12V mutation, their long-suspected distinct structural features remain elusive. Using NMR, X-ray structures, and computational methods, we found that oncogenic mutants of K-Ras4B, the predominant splice variant of K-Ras, exhibit distinct conformational dynamics when GDP-bound, visiting the “active-like” conformational state similar to the one observed in GTP-bound K-Ras. This behavior distinguishes G12V from wild type and G12D K-Ras4B-GDP. The likely reason is interactions between the aliphatic sidechain of V12 and the Switch II region of K-Ras4BG12V-GDP, which are distinct in K-Ras4BG12D-GDP. In the X-ray structures, crystal contacts reduce the dynamics of the sidechain at position 12 by stabilizing the Switch I region of the protein. This explains why structural differences between G12V and G12D K-Ras have yet not been reported. Together, our results suggest a previously unknown mechanism of K-Ras activation. This mechanism relies on conformational dynamics caused by specific oncogenic mutations in the GDP-bound state. Our findings also imply that the therapeutic strategies decreasing the level of K-Ras-GTP by interfering with nucleotide exchange or by expediting GTP hydrolysis may work differently in different oncogenic mutants.  相似文献   

14.
Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is involved in gene regulation, epigenetic regulation, and disease processes. RBBP1 contains five domains with DNA-binding or histone-binding activities, but how RBBP1 specifically recognizes chromatin is still unknown. An AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) in RBBP1 was proposed to be the key region for DNA-binding and gene suppression. Here, we first determined the solution structure of a tandem PWWP-ARID domain mutant of RBBP1 after deletion of a long flexible acidic loop L12 in the ARID domain. NMR titration results indicated that the ARID domain interacts with DNA with no GC- or AT-rich preference. Surprisingly, we found that the loop L12 binds to the DNA-binding region of the ARID domain as a DNA mimic and inhibits DNA binding. The loop L12 can also bind weakly to the Tudor and chromobarrel domains of RBBP1, but binds more strongly to the DNA-binding region of the histone H2A-H2B heterodimer. Furthermore, both the loop L12 and DNA can enhance the binding of the chromobarrel domain to H3K4me3 and H4K20me3. Based on these results, we propose a model of chromatin recognition by RBBP1, which highlights the unexpected multiple key roles of the disordered acidic loop L12 in the specific binding of RBBP1 to chromatin.  相似文献   

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18.
Cardiolipin (CL) has been shown to play a crucial role in regulating the function of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As the most abundant protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has long been the model of choice to study CL-protein interactions, and specifically bound CLs have been identified in a variety of crystal structures of AAC. However, how CL binding affects the structural dynamics of AAC in atomic detail remains largely elusive. Here we compared all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on bovine AAC1 in lipid bilayers with and without CLs. Our results show that on the current microsecond simulation time scale: 1) CL binding does not significantly affect overall stability of the carrier or structural symmetry at the matrix-gate level; 2) pocket volumes of the carrier and interactions involved in the matrix-gate network become more heterogeneous in parallel simulations with membranes containing CLs; 3) CL binding consistently strengthens backbone hydrogen bonds within helix H2 near the matrix side; and 4) CLs play a consistent stabilizing role on the domain 1-2 interface through binding with the R30:R71:R151 stacking structure and fixing the M2 loop in a defined conformation. CL is necessary for the formation of this stacking structure, and this structure in turn forms a very stable CL binding site. Such a delicate equilibrium suggests the strictly conserved R30:R71:R151stacking structure of AACs could function as a switch under regulation of CLs. Taken together, these results shed new light on the CL-mediated modulation of AAC function.  相似文献   

19.
Missense variants are alterations to protein coding sequences that result in amino acid substitutions. They can be deleterious if the amino acid is required for maintaining structure or/and function, but are likely to be tolerated at other sites. Consequently, missense variation within a healthy population can mirror the effects of negative selection on protein structure and function, such that functional sites on proteins are often depleted of missense variants. Advances in high-throughput sequencing have dramatically increased the sample size of available human variation data, allowing for population-wide analysis of selective pressures. In this study, we developed a convenient set of tools, called 1D-to-3D, for visualizing the positions of missense variants on protein sequences and structures. We used these tools to characterize human homologues of the ARID family of gene regulators. ARID family members are implicated in multiple cancer types, developmental disorders, and immunological diseases but current understanding of their mechanistic roles is incomplete. Combined with phylogenetic and structural analyses, our approach allowed us to characterise sites important for protein-protein interactions, histone modification recognition, and DNA binding by the ARID proteins. We find that comparing missense depletion patterns among paralogs can reveal sub-functionalization at the level of domains. We propose that visualizing missense variants and their depletion on structures can serve as a valuable tool for complementing evolutionary and experimental findings.  相似文献   

20.
Much of our understanding of the homologous recombination (HR) machinery hinges on studies using Escherichia coli as a model organism. Interestingly enough, studies on the HR machinery in different bacterial species casts doubt on the universality of the E. coli paradigm. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two Holliday junction (HJ)‐resolvase paralogues, namely RuvC and RuvX; however, insights into their structural features and functional relevance is still limited. Here, we report on structure-guided functional studies of the M. tuberculosis RuvX HJ resolvase (MtRuvX). The crystalline MtRuvX is a dimer in the asymmetric unit, and each monomer has a RNAse H fold vis-à-vis RuvC-like nucleases. Interestingly, MtRuvX also contains some unique features, including the residues essential for ATP binding/coordination of Mg2+ ions. Indeed, MtRuvX exhibited an intrinsic, robust ATPase activity, which was further accentuated by DNA cofactors. Structure-guided substitutions of single residues at the ATP binding/Mg2+coordination sites while markedly attenuating the ATPase activity completely abrogated HJ cleavage, indicating an unanticipated relationship between ATP hydrolysis and DNA cleavage. However, the affinity of ATPase-deficient mutants for the HJ was not impaired. Contrary to RuvC, MtRuvX exhibits relaxed substrate specificity, cleaving a variety of branched DNA/RNA substrates. Notably, ATP hydrolysis plays a regulatory role, rendering MtRuvX from a canonical HJ resolvase to a DNA/RNA non-sequence specific endonuclease, indicating a link between HJ resolvase and nucleic acid metabolism. These findings provide novel insights into the structure and dual-functional activities of MtRuvX, and suggest that it may play an important role in DNA/RNA metabolism.  相似文献   

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