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1.
DNA glycosylases remove damaged or modified nucleobases by cleaving the N-glycosyl bond and the correct nucleotide is restored through subsequent base excision repair. In addition to excising threatening lesions, DNA glycosylases contribute to epigenetic regulation by mediating DNA demethylation and perform other important functions. However, the catalytic mechanism remains poorly defined for many glycosylases, including MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain IV), a member of the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily. MBD4 excises thymine from G·T mispairs, suppressing mutations caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine, and it removes uracil and modified uracils (e.g., 5-hydroxymethyluracil) mispaired with guanine. To investigate the mechanism of MBD4 we solved high-resolution structures of enzyme-DNA complexes at three stages of catalysis. Using a non-cleavable substrate analog, 2′-deoxy-pseudouridine, we determined the first structure of an enzyme-substrate complex for wild-type MBD4, which confirms interactions that mediate lesion recognition and suggests that a catalytic Asp, highly conserved in HhH enzymes, binds the putative nucleophilic water molecule and stabilizes the transition state. Observation that mutating the Asp (to Gly) reduces activity by 2700-fold indicates an important role in catalysis, but probably not one as the nucleophile in a double-displacement reaction, as previously suggested. Consistent with direct-displacement hydrolysis, a structure of the enzyme-product complex indicates a reaction leading to inversion of configuration. A structure with DNA containing 1-azadeoxyribose models a potential oxacarbenium-ion intermediate and suggests the Asp could facilitate migration of the electrophile towards the nucleophilic water. Finally, the structures provide detailed snapshots of the HhH motif, informing how these ubiquitous metal-binding elements mediate DNA binding.  相似文献   
2.
6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (ATP: D-fructose-6-phosphate-2-phosphotransferase) and D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities have been found in extracts prepared from etiolated mung bean seedlings. The activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase exhibits a sigmoidal shape in response to changes in concentrations of both substrates, D-fructose 6-phosphate and ATP (S0.5 values of 1.8 and 1.2 mM, respectively). Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) has a strong stimulating effect on the 2-kinase activity (A0.5 at about 2 mM), moderately increasing the Vmax and modifying the response into hyperbolic curves with Km values of 0.4 and 0.2 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, respectively. 3-Phosphoglycerate (I0.5 about 0.15 mM) partially inhibited the kinase activity by counteracting the Pi activation. In contrast, the activity of D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Km 0.38 mM) is strongly inhibited by Pi (I0.5 0.8 mM) lowering its affinity to fructose-2,6-P2 (Km 1.4 mM). 3-Phosphoglycerate activites the enzyme (A0.5 at about 0.3 mM) without causing a significant change in its Km for fructose-2,6-P2. The activities of both of these enzymes in relationship to the metabolic role of D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the germinating seed is discussed.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract. Nutrient conservation in vegetation affects rates of litter decomposition and soil nutrient availability. Although resorption has been traditionally considered one of the most important plant strategies to conserve nutrients in temperate forests, long leaf life‐span and low nutrient requirements have been postulated as better indicators. We aimed at identifying nutrient conservation strategies within characteristic functional groups of NW Patagonian forests on Andisols. We analysed C‐, N‐, P‐, K‐ and lignin‐concentrations in mature and senescent leaves of ten native woody species within the functional groups: broad‐leaved deciduous species, broad‐leaved evergreens and conifers. We also examined mycorrhizal associations in all species. Nutrient concentration in mature leaves and N‐ resorption were higher in broad‐leaved deciduous species than in the other two functional groups. Conifers had low mature leaf nutrient concentrations, low N‐resorption and high lignin/N ratios in senescent leaves. P‐ and K‐resorptions did not differ among functional groups. Broad‐leaved evergreens exhibited a species‐dependent response. Nitrogen in mature leaves was positively correlated with both N resorption and soil N‐fertility. Despite the high P‐retention capacity of Andisols, N appeared to be the more limiting nutrient, with most species being proficient in resorbing N but not P. The presence of endomycorrhizae in all conifers and the broad‐leaved evergreen Maytenus boaria, ectomycorrhizae in all Nothofagus species (four deciduous, one evergreen), and cluster roots in the broad‐leaved evergreen Lomatia hirsuta, would be possibly explaining why P is less limiting than N in these forests.  相似文献   
4.
5.
Binding of the cationic tetra(tributylammoniomethyl)-substituted hydroxoaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN4) to bilayer lipid membranes was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and intramembrane field compensation (IFC) methods. With neutral phosphatidylcholine membranes, AlPcN4 appeared to bind more effectively than the negatively charged tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4), which was attributed to the enhancement of the coordination interaction of aluminum with the phosphate moiety of phosphatidylcholine by the electric field created by positively charged groups of AlPcN4. The inhibitory effect of fluoride ions on the membrane binding of both AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 supported the essential role of aluminum-phosphate coordination in the interaction of these phthalocyanines with phospholipids. The presence of negative or positive charges on the surface of lipid membranes modulated the binding of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 in accord with the character (attraction or repulsion) of the electrostatic interaction, thus showing the significant contribution of the latter to the phthalocyanine adsorption on lipid bilayers. The data on the photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 as measured by sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes correlated well with the binding data obtained by FCS and IFC techniques. The reduced photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 with neutral membranes violating this correlation was attributed to the concentration quenching of singlet excited states as proved by the data on the AlPcN4 fluorescence quenching.  相似文献   
6.
Although there are several reports on ultradian and circadian rhythms in newborns, we found only one report in which infradian periodicities are described for heart-rate measurements in the early stages of human development. Here, we report infradian rhythms in the monthly range in the sleep/wake cycle of four infants studied along 24 consecutive weeks. Our procedure was applied to sleep diary records from four healthy newborns. The data were arranged in binary time series representing sleep (?1) or wake (1) states. These time series were integrated in order to obtain the cumulative sleep/wake time. A measure of the sleep/wake ratio (SWR) was obtained by computing the average slope of the cumulative sleep/wake time. To extract periodicities we applied the Fourier periodogram to the temporal course of the SWR. We found a notorious difference in the SWR pattern among infants. In two infants the SWR showed a marked linear decay, spending more time asleep than awake, while in the two other infants oscillated near zero. We found robust oscillations in all children. In all cases the Fourier periodogram results present significant power in the infradian range. From these results, we suggest that sleep and wake durations are probably modulated by some internal stimuli.  相似文献   
7.
8.
 This paper deals with the use of cladistic methods and cladograms in phylogeny reconstruction in plant groups containing numerous taxa. How accurate are the cladograms as to details? Accuracy tests at the level of details require an independently known phylogeny, which excludes most plant groups, but such tests can be carried out in domesticated and experimental plant groups which have documented pedigrees. Four such tests are known and are presented here: a new case in Gilia and three previously published cases in Avena, Hordeum, and Helianthus. The four cases include domesticated and experimental plants, use of morphological and molecular evidence, and presence of dichotomous as well as reticulate phylogenies. The cladograms of the four plant groups all differ in significant details from the known pedigrees. These results are discussed in relation to problems of interpretation of cladograms. Received March 21, 2000 Accepted August 16, 2001  相似文献   
9.
The linkage of the Phi, Pgd, Po2, S, H and halothane sensitivity loci was followed in a Belgian Landrace family, heterozygous for these systems over 6 generations. Recombination next to the S locus occurred mainly in pigs belonging to this particular family. From this investigation the position of the S locus is proved to be outwith the Phi-Pgd region, next to Phi . Therefore the gene sequence S - Phi - Hal -H- Po2 -Pgd is proposed. Higher recombination rates were observed in the female parental line of the multiheterozygous family when compared to the male parental line. Additional data from animals, unrelated to this strain, confirm the evidence of close linkage of the S system to the nearest marker loci.  相似文献   
10.
1. Because L-asparagine augments insulin release evoked by L-leucine, the metabolism of these two amino acids was investigated in rat pancreatic islets. 2. L-Leucine inhibited the uptake and deamidation of L-asparagine, but failed to exert any obvious primary effect upon the further catabolism of aspartate derived from exogenous asparagine. 3. L-Asparagine augmented the oxidation of L-leucine, and effect possibly attributable to activaion of 2-ketoisocaproate dehydrogenase. 4. The association of L-asparagine and L-leucine exerted a sparing action on the utilization of endogenous amino acids, so that the integrated rate of nutrients oxidation was virtually identical in the sole presence of L-leucine and simultaneous presence of L-asparagine and L-leucine, respectively. 5. It is proposed that the enhancing action of L-asparagine upon insulin release evoked by L-leucine is attributable to an increased generation rate of cytosolic NADPH rather than any increase in nutrients oxidation.  相似文献   
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