首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
相似文献
 共查询到20条相似文献,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
A phylogeny for seventy-two species of Australian thrips in the subfamily Phlaeothripinae, based on cladistic analysis of forty morphological adult characters, is presented. We use this phylogeny to infer the evolutionary history of host-plant affiliations, gall induction and other types of domicile use, and different forms of social behaviour. Maximum parsimony analysis yielded forty-eight cladograms of length 316, and the strict consensus of these cladograms was well resolved. This phylogeny indicated that: (1) associations of thrips with their host plants tend to be evolutionarily conservative, with monophyletic groups of thrips on the host-plant genera Acacia, Casuarina and Geijera, (2) galling has evolved multiple times, on different host plants, (3) transitions in domicile use include changes between galling and living in holes or old galls, between living in glued phyllodes and living in old galls, and between leaf-feeding and galling, and (4) in three of five cases, inquiline lineages were not closely related to their host lineages and the evolution of inquilinism apparently involved a host-plant shift. However, in two cases, inquilines were very closely related to their gall-inducing hosts. Eusocial behaviour (involving soldier castes) has evolved in different lineages from those that exhibit communal behaviour (cooperation in building or defending domiciles), suggesting a lack of direct transition between the two social systems. This phylogeny serves as a framework for future molecular systematic studies, and future comparative analysis of ecology and behaviour in the Phlaeothripinae.  相似文献   

2.
The phylogeny of Phytosciara Frey, Prosciara Frey, Dolichosciara Tuomikoski (together forming Phytosciara sensu Tuomikoski), Lobosciara Steffan and Bradysia Winnertz was studied by parsimony analysis using the computer programs Pee‐Wee and NONA. The analysis was based on sixty‐four morphological characters from adult males, coded for thirty‐nine ingroup and two outgroup terminals. Three cladograms of the maximum fit (Pee‐Wee) and one of the minimum length (NONA) were obtained, some of them with polytomies. Many characters showed much homoplasy in the cladograms. The solution by the fittest cladograms was chosen as the main hypothesis of the phylogeny. Of the groups studied, only Lobosciara appeared monophyletic. The relationships of the taxa in their now revised monophyletic sense are: Dolichosciara + (Lobosciara + ((‘Prosciara’ fuscina group + ‘P’. vulcanata) + (‘P’. mima group + ((‘P’. perfida + (Bradysia + Phytosciara)) + Prosciara)))). Phytosciara Frey, Prosciara, Dolichosciara and Lobosciara in their revised concepts are regarded as genera.  相似文献   

3.
Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.  相似文献   

4.
In Colless’ (1995,Syst. Biol. 44, 102–108) results, cladograms for randomly generated matrices were strongly asymmetrical, and he used this to maintain that real cladograms provide little evidence on asymmetry of phylogeny. His position, however, depended on retaining poorly supported groups as if they were well-supported. If poorly supported groups are removed, as with parsimony jackknifing, well-structured real data can still give strong asymmetry, while random matrices simply yield unresolved trees, obviating Colless’ argument.  相似文献   

5.
Merlin M. WHITE   《Mycological Research》2006,110(9):1011-1024
The Harpellales (Trichomycetes) are endosymbiotic microfungi, mostly unculturable and predominantly associated with larval aquatic insects worldwide. Molecular phylogenies including ‘gut fungi’ have included at most only four axenic isolates of the 38 genera of Harpellales. Cladistic analyses were used to infer the phylogeny of the Harpellales using partial 18S or 28S nu-rRNA sequences generated for 16 genera of Harpellales, with 64 of 72 sequences generated from unculturable samples. Both analyses placed Orphella outside an otherwise monophyletic group of Harpellales, more closely allied to the Kickxellales. The current classification recognizing two families is not corroborated and continued use of the family Legeriomycetaceae may not be supportable. The largest genera of Harpellales, Smittium and Stachylina, were polyphyletic and the 28S rRNA sequences separate Smittium culisetae from the remainder of its genus. The cladograms did not support the consistent mapping of important morphological taxonomic characters, including trichospore shape and zygospore type or appendage numbers for both. This study demonstrates the use of microscopic thalli from host guts for molecular phylogenies and suggests the need for more data from the remaining Harpellales, especially with the future inclusion of protein-coding genes.  相似文献   

6.
 DNA sequences of both 5′ and 3′ regions of the plastid ndhF gene were generated in order to study the position of Patrinia and Nardostachys, to check the potential paraphyletic nature of Patrinieae, and to evaluate the possible link between the tribe and Linnaeaceae. Parsimony analysis showed very strong support for Patrinia as sister to all members of Valerianaceae (including Nardostachys) and indicated the paraphyletic nature of the tribe Patrinieae. Additionally, trees were constructed from available rbcL data separately and supplemented with ndhF sequences. Topologies of these combined cladograms are in agreement with the ndhF phylogeny, suggesting that the traditionally circumscribed Patrinieae can no longer be recognized but must be considered as part of a basal grade in Valerianaceae. Parsimony analysis based on a morphological data set supported a monophyletic Patrinieae; combination with the molecular data showed a paraphyletic Patrinieae. Furthermore, the possible link between Patrinieae and Linnaeaceae is evaluated. Received July 12, 2001 Accepted February 25, 2002  相似文献   

7.
A cladistic analysis was carried out to resolve phylogenetic pattern among bryophytes and other land plants. The analysis used 22 taxa of land plants and 90 characters relating to male gametogenesis.Coleochaete orChara/Nitella were the outgroups in various analyses using HENNIG86, PAUP, and MacClade, and the land plant phylogeny was unchanged regardless of outgroup utilized. The most parsimonious cladograms from HENNIG86 (7 trees) have treelengths of 243 (C.I. = 0.58, R.I. = 0.82). Bryophytes are monophyletic as are hornworts, liverworts, and mosses, with hornworts identified as the sister group of a liverwort/moss assemblage. In vascular plants, lycophytes are polyphyletic andSelaginella is close to the bryophytes.Lycopodium is the sister group of the remaining vascular plants (minusSelaginella). Longer treelengths (over 250) are required to produce tree topologies in which either lycophytes are monophyletic or to reconstruct the paraphyletic bryophyte phylogeny of recent authors. This analysis challenges existing concepts of bryophyte phylogeny based on more classical data and interpretations, and provides new insight into land plant evolution.  相似文献   

8.

Background  

The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species.  相似文献   

9.
A cladistic study ofDipsacaceae (Asteridae, Dipsacales) was undertaken, based mainly on morphological and palynological characters, obtained by investigations of herbarium material and from the literature. Outgroups includedMorinaceae, Triplostegiaceae, and a subset ofValerianaceae. The consensus tree resulting from three equally parsimonious cladograms shows thatDipsacaceae are divided into two major clades, one withDipsacus andCephalaria, the other including the remaining genera. Within the latter clade,Knautia is the sister group of the rest of the taxa. This study is a reappraisal ofDipsacaceae phylogeny, and the results broadly match previous evidence.  相似文献   

10.
The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 18S–26S nrDNA for a sample of 16 taxa from theInuleae s. str. and two outgroup taxa are analysed cladistically with PAUP. A consensus tree of the four most parsimonious cladograms is presented. Three different tests of cladogram stability are conducted (Bremer support, parsimony jackknifing and bootstrapping); all tests indicate a high degree of support for the basal nodes of the tree. The ITS phylogeny of the tribe is compared with previous hypotheses based on morphological data. The position ofAnisopappus as sister group to the rest of the tribe is supported by the molecular data, but the proposed subdivision ofInuleae s. str. into a paleate grade group and an epaleate clade is not. The interpretation of the character evolution of, e.g. receptacular paleae and pappus features within the tribe is discussed.  相似文献   

11.
12.
To elucidate the origin of naked barley, molecular variation of the marker sKT7 tightly linked to the nud locus was examined. A total of 259 (53 wild, 106 hulled domesticated, and 100 naked domesticated) barley accessions were studied. Restriction analysis of the sKT7 PCR-amplified product revealed the alleles I, II, III, and IV. All four alleles were found in wild barley, but allele IV was found only in a single accession from southwestern Iran. Hulled domesticated accessions showed alleles I, II, or III, but all naked domesticated accessions had allele IV. The distribution of allele IV in wild barley and its pervasive presence in naked domesticated lines support the conclusion that naked barley has a monophyletic origin, probably in southwestern Iran. The available results suggest two scenarios for the origin of naked barley: either directly from a wild barley with allele IV or from a hulled domesticated line with allele IV that later became extinct. Naked domesticated accessions from different regions of the world have extremely homogeneous DNA sequences at the sKT7 locus, supporting the monophyletic origin of naked barley. For allele IV, four haplotypes (IVb to IVe) were found in 30 naked accessions: IVb was predominant (66.7%) and widely distributed, while the other three haplotypes, differing by only one nucleotide at different positions relative to IVb, showed a localized distribution. The geographical distribution of the haplotypes of sKT7 allele IV suggests migration routes of naked domesticated barley in central and eastern Asia.Communicated by F. Salamini  相似文献   

13.
 To assess the new taxonomy of Monopetalanthus proposed by Wieringa, a phylogenetic study was performed using the chloroplast trnL intron and psbA-trnH spacer, and the nuclear ITS region of the 18-26S rDNA. The phylogeny clearly indicates the polyphyletic nature of Monopetalanthus. The molecular data support the transfer of M. longiracemosus to Tetraberlinia and the newly defined Aphanocalyx, which now includes all the previous Monopetalanthus species having leaflets with a marginal vein. Our analyses do not support the monophyly of the newly described genus Bikinia, which includes four new species and six species transferred from Monopetalanthus. Bikinia occurs either as paraphyletic with Tetraberlinia (chloroplast DNA data) or as a monophyletic group that also includes the new monotypic genus Icuria sister to Tetraberlinia (ITS data). Nonetheless, the molecular phylogeny generally supports the taxonomy of Wieringa in subdividing the genus Monopetalanthus into distinct groups, none of which retains the name Monopetalanthus. Received May 28, 2001; accepted July 6, 2002 Published online: November 20, 2002 Address of the authors: G. Y. Fannie Gervais, Anne Bruneau (e-mail: bruneaua@irbv.umontreal. ca), Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, Université de Montréal, 4101 Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H1X2B2.  相似文献   

14.
Sequences from gapA, gyrA and ompA were used to evaluate the relationships of the enterobacterial plant pathogens, and assess whether a robust phylogeny can be ascertained using this group of housekeeping genes. Up to 48 taxa were included in a combined phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolutionary distribution of plant pathogenic species across the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phylogenies were reconstructed from gapA, gyrA and ompA gene sequences using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood algorithms, and phylogenetic congruence was evaluated by the incongruence length difference test and the partition addition bootstrap alteration approach. The resulting gene trees were found to be incongruent, with gapA supporting a monophyletic origin for the plant pathogenic species. In contrast, gyrA and ompA supported multiple polyphyletic origins of Erwinia, Brenneria, Pectobacterium and Pantoea in conjunction with a previously published 16S rDNA phylogeny. However, none of the trees (not even the published 16S rDNA gene tree) supports the current taxonomic classification of these genera into four clades, with Pantoea forming the only monophyletic group in the gapA, gyrA and 16S rDNA trees. Finally, the gapA, gyrA and previously published 16S rDNA phylogenies differ in the taxonomic placement of several bacterial strains which are separated in the three trees. The observed incongruence among the four gene histories is likely to be the result of horizontal transfer events, confounding the search for a robust set of housekeeping genes with a shared evolutionary history that could be used to confidently characterize the relationships of the plant pathogenic enterobacteria. © The Willi Hennig Society 2010.  相似文献   

15.
The genus Rheumatobates comprises thirty‐seven species and subspecies of New World water striders belonging to subfamily Rhagadotarsinae. Among species, males vary dramatically in the degree and nature of modifications of the antennae, three pairs of legs and abdominal and genital segments. Characters describing this modification have traditionally been used to differentiate and group species. The general assumption has been that modified species belong to one group and unmodified species to another. These two ‘species groups’ are subdivided into ‘subgroups’, but little effort has been made to resolve relationships among them. We conduct the first numerical cladistic analysis of Rheumatobates using a data set comprised of 102 characters, primarily describing modification of male external morphology. To address concerns about the inclusion of characters to be optimized on the phylogeny, characters describing modification of antennae and hind legs were included and then excluded in separate analyses. A preferred phylogeny was chosen from the four equally parsimonious cladograms found after successive reweighting of characters. There was good resolution at all levels of the phylogeny. Most of the major clades and terminal relationships were moderately to strongly supported, whereas the basal relationships were less well supported. The general assumption that unmodified and modified species form two monophyletic groups was not supported. However, traditionally recognized ‘subgroups’ within the modified species group were largely upheld. The analysis also suggested several major clades and relationships among these clades that were not previously recognized. The exclusion of characters describing modification of antennae and hind legs did not change the resolved major clades of the reconstructed phylogeny.  相似文献   

16.
The African citrus triozid (ACT), Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CLaf), the causative agent of Africa citrus greening disease (ACGD). This study evaluates the diversity of ACT parasitoids and further characterizes endosymbionts associated with both T. erytreae and its parasitoids that could be used as biological control agents of T. erytreae and management of ACGD. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene was used to reconstruct T. erytreae and its parasitoids phylogeny, while 16S rRNA gene was used for the bacterial phylogeny. One well-supported clade of ACT was detected within the Triozidae phylogeny, while the parasitoid species clustered into four groups within eulophid and encyrtid phylogeny. The phylogenetic result of parasitoids was supported by morphological identification where five different parasitoid species could be identified, that is Tamarixia dryi, Psyllaephagus pulvinatus, Tetrastichus sp., Aphidencyrtus cassatus and Charipine species. Moreover, four eubacterial symbionts (Wolbachia,Rickettsia,Arsenophonus and Candidatus Liberibacter sp.) were detected in T. erytreae and three symbionts (Wolbachia,Rickettsia and Cardinuim) in the parasitoid specimens. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic inferences clustered the identified eubacterial symbionts within α and γ proteobacteria subdivisions. Phylogenetic inferences of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that Wolbachia strains from ACT and the parasitoids did not form a single monophyletic clade; however, both clustered within Supergroup B. The impacts of these parasitoid species and endosymbionts on ACT are still unknown, but their occurrence and broad distribution indicate the possibility of future use for control of T. erytreae.  相似文献   

17.
王玉  温福岳  陈利君  陈庭 《广西植物》2018,38(7):960-968
该文综述了指甲兰属种质资源的历史、地理分布概况和保护现状,以及该属植物在组织培养、药用价值及化学成分分析、香味成分研究与种系发生等领域的国内外研究成果,并对该属植物在未来的研究重点进行了探讨和分析。结果表明:指甲兰属植物是热带地区重要的花卉,具有极高的观赏价值和药用价值,通过有效地保护和利用好该属资源,并在多个学术领域内开展该属植物研究,不仅可以为相关研究提供技术参考和理论支持,而且能够充分挖掘其应用价值。然而,国内外在相关领域的各项研究进展还不够深入,未来指甲兰属植物应加强以下方面的研究:(1)开展资源引种与回归保育等方面的实践工作及研究;(2)利用稀缺资源和母本优势,开展组织培养与属间品种培育方面的研究;(3)充分发掘其药用价值,积极开展植物化学成分方面的研究;(4)开展指甲兰属香味成分分析与应用研究,进而开展该属传粉生物学的研究;(5)利用分子生物学领域的最新技术和方法,揭示出该属在相关类群中的地位和其界定范围。  相似文献   

18.
Summary In nine family pedigrees in which X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is segregating, a multi-point linkage analysis has been carried out. In each family, the map distance, d, between XLA and a fixed point in a known map of nine RFLP loci on the X chromosome was estimated by calculating the log likelihoods, L(d). Using a new method, the 10-point likelihood was approximated by appropriately combining three 4-point likelihoods. Homogeneity tests (admixture tests) were performed showing clear evidence for heterogeneity of XLA.  相似文献   

19.
Echinochloa (Poaceae) includes two domesticated species,Echinochloa utilis (Japanese barnyard millet) andE. frumentacea (Indian sawa millet) and 20–30 wild species. The two millets are morphologically very variable and overlap in spikelet and inflorescence characteristics. Both species are hexaploids based on x = 9. Cytogenetic studies point to the hexaploid wild speciesE. crusgalli andE. colona as possible progenitors ofE. utilis andE. frumentacea, respectively. The tetraploidE. oryzoides is considered as a possible genome donor to wild and domesticated barnyard millet. Markers from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA method were used to assess the proposed phylogeny and examine the genetic diversity in both domesticated and wild species. The data were analyzed numerically.Echinochloa utilis andE. frumentacea appear very distinct, but grouped withE. crusgalli andE. colona, respectively. The tetraploidE. oryzoides show strong genetic affinity to theE. utilis—E. crusgalli group. The data are in general agreement with the cytogenetic information; however, some disagreements on the interpretation of some of the cytogenetic information is raised. The variability in DNA markers observed in the domesticated species, particularlyE. frumentacea, points to the feasibility of using RAPD markers in cultivar fingerprinting and breeding programs of these millets.  相似文献   

20.
Abstract. Myrmecia Fabricius is revised at species-group level. Nine groups are recognized: those of M.aberrans, M.cephalotes, M.gulosa, M.mandibularis, M.nigrocincta, M.picta, M.pilosula, M.tepperi and M. urens. A key to the species groups is provided, and worker diagnoses, illustrations and species lists are given for each. Eight groups are constituted much as in the previous classification of John Clark, but defined using new characters. Phylogenetic relationships are investigated, with six cladograms derived from four sets of data, each with a different outgroup. The most plausible cladograms suggest that: (1) the aberrans group is the sister group to the others; (2) the pilosula, tepperi and mandibularis groups constitute a monophyletic assemblage, though monophyly of the first two is not confirmed; (3) the gulosa, nigrocincta, urens and picta groups constitute a monophyletic assemblage, though monophyly of the picta group is not confirmed; (4) the phylogenetic position of the cephalotes group is unclear.  相似文献   

设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号