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bcl-2, the prototypic cellular antiapoptotic gene, decreases Sindbis virus replication and Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains, resulting in protection against lethal encephalitis. To investigate potential mechanisms by which Bcl-2 protects against central nervous system Sindbis virus infection, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bcl-2-interacting gene products in an adult mouse brain library. We identified a novel 60-kDa coiled-coil protein, Beclin, which we confirmed interacts with Bcl-2 in mammalian cells, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. To examine the role of Beclin in Sindbis virus pathogenesis, we constructed recombinant Sindbis virus chimeras that express full-length human Beclin (SIN/beclin), Beclin lacking the putative Bcl-2-binding domain (SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD), or Beclin containing a premature stop codon near the 5′ terminus (SIN/beclinstop). The survival of mice infected with SIN/beclin was significantly higher (71%) than the survival of mice infected with SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD (9%) or SIN/beclinstop (7%) (P < 0.001). The brains of mice infected with SIN/beclin had fewer Sindbis virus RNA-positive cells, fewer apoptotic cells, and lower viral titers than the brains of mice infected with SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD or SIN/beclinstop. These findings demonstrate that Beclin is a novel Bcl-2-interacting cellular protein that may play a role in antiviral host defense.  相似文献
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A method similar to the sucrose-gap technique introduced be Stäpfli is described for measuring membrane potential and current in singly lobster giant axons (diameter about 100 micra). The isotonic sucrose solution used to perfuse the gaps raises the external leakage resistance so that the recorded potential is only about 5 per cent less than the actual membrane potential. However, the resting potential of an axon in the sucrose-gap arrangement is increased 20 to 60 mv over that recorded by a conventional micropipette electrode when the entire axon is bathed in sea water. A complete explanation for this effect has not been discovered. The relation between resting potential and external potassium and sodium ion concentrations shows that potassium carries most of the current in a depolarized axon in the sucrose-gap arrangement, but that near the resting potential other ions make significant contributions. Lowering the external chloride concentration decreases the resting potential. Varying the concentration of the sucrose solution has little effect. A study of the impedance changes associated with the action potential shows that the membrane resistance decreases to a minimum at the peak of the spike and returns to near its initial value before repolarization is complete (a normal lobster giant axon action potential does not have an undershoot). Action potentials recorded simultaneously by the sucrose-gap technique and by micropipette electrodes are practically superposable.  相似文献
4.
The sucrose-gap method introduced by Stämpfli provides a means for the application of a voltage clamp to the lobster giant axon, which responds to a variety of different experimental procedures in ways quite similar to those reported for the squid axon and frog node. This is particularly true for the behavior of the peak initial current. However, the steady state current shows some differences. It has a variable slope conductance less than that of the peak initial current. The magnitude of the steady state slope conductance is related to the length of the repolarization phase of the action potential, which does not have an undershoot in the lobster. The steady state outward current is maintained for as long as 100 msec.; this is in contrast to a decline of about 50 per cent in the squid axon. Lowering the external calcium concentration produces shifts in the current-voltage relations qualitatively similar to those obtained from the squid axon. On the basis of the data available, there is no reason to doubt that the Hodgkin and Huxley analysis for the squid giant axon in sea water can be applied to the lobster giant axon.  相似文献
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Rosenthal fibers (RFs) are abnormal inclusions within astrocytes, characteristic of Alexander's disease. We have previously isolated a 22 kd protein component of RFs from Alexander's disease brain. By Western blotting, we detected its equivalent in several rat organs, with the highest level in heart, and in a human astrocytoma cell line (U-373MG). A cDNA library established from U-373MG was screened with an anti-RF protein antibody. A partial cDNA clone encoding the lens protein alpha B-crystallin was isolated. The anti-RF protein antibodies react with lens alpha B-crystallin. Furthermore, the distribution of alpha B-crystallin mRNA in rat organs is consistent with the Western blots. Therefore, alpha B-crystallin is not lens-specific and it can accumulate in large amounts in astrocytes in pathological conditions.  相似文献
6.
Intermediate filaments (IF) appear to be attached to the nuclear envelope in various mammalian cell types. The nucleus of mouse keratinocytes is enveloped by a cagelike network of keratin-containing bundles of IF (IFB). This network appears to be continuous with the cytoplasmic IFB system that extends to the cell surface. Electron microscopy reveals that the IFB appear to terminate at the level of the nuclear envelope, frequently in association with nuclear pore complexes (Jones, J. C .R., A. E. Goldman, P. Steinert, S. Yuspa, and R. D. Goldman, 1982, Cell Motility, 2:197-213). Based on these observations of nuclear-IF associations, it is of interest to determine the fate and organizational states of IF during mitosis, a period in the cell cycle when the nuclear envelope disassembles. Immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal keratin antibody and electron microscopy of thin and thick sections of mitotic mouse keratinocytes revealed that the IFB system remained intact as the cells entered mitosis and surrounded the developing mitotic spindle. IFB were close to chromosomes and often associated with chromosome arms. In contrast, in HeLa, a human epithelial cell, keratin-containing IFB appear to dissemble as cells enter mitosis (Franke, W. W., E. Schmid, C. Grund, and B. Geiger, 1982, Cell, 30:103-113). The keratin IFB in mitotic HeLa cells appeared to form amorphous nonfilamentous bodies as determined by electron microscopy. However, in HeLa, another IF system composed primarily of a 55,000-mol-wt protein (frequently termed vimentin) appears to remain morphologically intact throughout mitosis in close association with the mitotic apparatus (Celis, J.E., P.M. Larsen, S.J. Fey, and A. Celis, 1983, J. Cell Biol., 97:1429-34). We propose that the mitotic apparatus in both mouse epidermal cells and in HeLa cells is supported and centered within the cell by IFB networks.  相似文献
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Native intermediate filament (IF) preparations from the baby hamster kidney fibroblastic cell line (BHK-21) contain a number of minor polypeptides in addition to the IF structural subunit proteins desmin, a 54,000-mol-wt protein, and vimentin, a 55,000-mol-wt protein. A monoclonal antibody was produced that reached exclusively with a high molecular weight (300,000) protein representative of these minor proteins. Immunological methods and comparative peptide mapping techniques demonstrated that the 300,000-mol-wt species was biochemically distinct from the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt proteins. Double-label immunofluorescence observations on spread BHK cells using this monoclonal antibody and a rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt proteins showed that the 300,000-mol-wt species co-distributed with IF in a fibrous pattern. In cells treated with colchicine or those in the early stages of spreading, double-labeling with these antibodies revealed the co-existence of the respective antigens in the juxtanuclear cap of IF that is characteristic of cells in these physiological states. After colchicine removal, or in the late stages of cell spreading, the 300,00-mol-wt species and the IF subunits redistributed to their normal, highly coincident cytoplasmic patterns. Ultrastructural localization by the immunogold technique using the monoclonal antibody supported the light microscopic findings in that the 300,000-mol-wt species was associated with IF in the several physiological and morphological cell states investigated. The gold particle pattern was less intimately associated with IF than that defined by anti-54/55 and was one of non-uniform distribution along IF, being clustered primarily at points of proximity between IF, where an amorphous, proteinaceous material was often the labeled element. Occasionally, "bridges" of label were seen extending outward from such clusters on IF. Gold particles were infrequently bound to microtubules, microfilaments, or other cellular organelles, and when so, IF were usually contiguous. During multiple cycles of in vitro disassembly/assembly of the IF from native preparations, the 300,000-mol-wt protein remained in the fraction containing the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt structural subunits, whether the latter were in the soluble state or pelleted as formed filaments. In keeping with the nomenclature developed for the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), the acronym IFAP-300K (intermediate filament associated protein) is proposed for this molecule.  相似文献
10.
The mechanical compliance (reciprocal of stiffness) of thin filaments was estimated from the relative compliance of single, skinned muscle fibers in rigor at sarcomere lengths between 1.8 and 2.4 micron. The compliance of the fibers was calculated as the ratio of sarcomere length change to tension change during imposition of repetitive cycles of small stretches and releases. Fiber compliance decreased as the sarcomere length was decreased below 2.4 micron. The compliance of the thin filaments could be estimated from this decrement because in this range of lengths overlap between the thick and thin filaments is complete and all of the myosin heads bind to the thin filament in rigor. Thus, the compliance of the overlap region of the sarcomere is constant as length is changed and the decrease in fiber compliance is due to decrease of the nonoverlap length of the thin filaments (the I band). The compliance value obtained for the thin filaments implies that at 2.4-microns sarcomere length, the thin filaments contribute approximately 55% of the total sarcomere compliance. Considering that the sarcomeres are approximately 1.25-fold more compliant in active isometric contractions than in rigor, the thin filaments contribute approximately 44% to sarcomere compliance during isometric contraction.  相似文献
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