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1.
Orcadian and circatrigintan time series of salivary progesterone levels in premenarchal and adolescent girls and healthy mature premenopausal women have been investigated as a possible determinant for breast cancer risk. Circadian variations in progesterone appear to be more random than systematic and estimates of total daily progesterone output are better represented by samples pooled from several 2-hr specimens. Different patterns of circatrigintan progesterone secretion in girls are recognised and relate to those experienced in infertile and fertile women, though their relation to chronological or menarchal age is as yet uncertain. These data suggest that the measurement of salivary progesterone at premenarche, adolescence and maturity is a feasible, though statistically difficult, study for prospective identification of individuals at risk for breast cancer.  相似文献   
2.
This paper is concerned with gene survival in a population which may increase without density dependence according to a generalization of the Moran model for haploid individuals. A selective advantage to one allele and the possibility of differential reproductive rates are allowed. Simple conditions are given for ultimate homozygosity to be certain and for the possibility of ultimate polymorphism. The results complement and extend those of Heyde (1981, 1982).  相似文献   
3.
Abstract. Nutrient conservation in vegetation affects rates of litter decomposition and soil nutrient availability. Although resorption has been traditionally considered one of the most important plant strategies to conserve nutrients in temperate forests, long leaf life‐span and low nutrient requirements have been postulated as better indicators. We aimed at identifying nutrient conservation strategies within characteristic functional groups of NW Patagonian forests on Andisols. We analysed C‐, N‐, P‐, K‐ and lignin‐concentrations in mature and senescent leaves of ten native woody species within the functional groups: broad‐leaved deciduous species, broad‐leaved evergreens and conifers. We also examined mycorrhizal associations in all species. Nutrient concentration in mature leaves and N‐ resorption were higher in broad‐leaved deciduous species than in the other two functional groups. Conifers had low mature leaf nutrient concentrations, low N‐resorption and high lignin/N ratios in senescent leaves. P‐ and K‐resorptions did not differ among functional groups. Broad‐leaved evergreens exhibited a species‐dependent response. Nitrogen in mature leaves was positively correlated with both N resorption and soil N‐fertility. Despite the high P‐retention capacity of Andisols, N appeared to be the more limiting nutrient, with most species being proficient in resorbing N but not P. The presence of endomycorrhizae in all conifers and the broad‐leaved evergreen Maytenus boaria, ectomycorrhizae in all Nothofagus species (four deciduous, one evergreen), and cluster roots in the broad‐leaved evergreen Lomatia hirsuta, would be possibly explaining why P is less limiting than N in these forests.  相似文献   
4.
Binding of the cationic tetra(tributylammoniomethyl)-substituted hydroxoaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN4) to bilayer lipid membranes was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and intramembrane field compensation (IFC) methods. With neutral phosphatidylcholine membranes, AlPcN4 appeared to bind more effectively than the negatively charged tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4), which was attributed to the enhancement of the coordination interaction of aluminum with the phosphate moiety of phosphatidylcholine by the electric field created by positively charged groups of AlPcN4. The inhibitory effect of fluoride ions on the membrane binding of both AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 supported the essential role of aluminum-phosphate coordination in the interaction of these phthalocyanines with phospholipids. The presence of negative or positive charges on the surface of lipid membranes modulated the binding of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 in accord with the character (attraction or repulsion) of the electrostatic interaction, thus showing the significant contribution of the latter to the phthalocyanine adsorption on lipid bilayers. The data on the photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 as measured by sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes correlated well with the binding data obtained by FCS and IFC techniques. The reduced photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 with neutral membranes violating this correlation was attributed to the concentration quenching of singlet excited states as proved by the data on the AlPcN4 fluorescence quenching.  相似文献   
5.
 This paper deals with the use of cladistic methods and cladograms in phylogeny reconstruction in plant groups containing numerous taxa. How accurate are the cladograms as to details? Accuracy tests at the level of details require an independently known phylogeny, which excludes most plant groups, but such tests can be carried out in domesticated and experimental plant groups which have documented pedigrees. Four such tests are known and are presented here: a new case in Gilia and three previously published cases in Avena, Hordeum, and Helianthus. The four cases include domesticated and experimental plants, use of morphological and molecular evidence, and presence of dichotomous as well as reticulate phylogenies. The cladograms of the four plant groups all differ in significant details from the known pedigrees. These results are discussed in relation to problems of interpretation of cladograms. Received March 21, 2000 Accepted August 16, 2001  相似文献   
6.
  1. Food ingestion is one of the most basic features of all organisms. However, obtaining precise—and high‐throughput—estimates of feeding rates remains challenging, particularly for small, aquatic herbivores such as zooplankton, snails, and tadpoles. These animals typically consume low volumes of food that are time‐consuming to accurately measure.
  2. We extend a standard high‐throughput fluorometry technique, which uses a microplate reader and 96‐well plates, as a practical tool for studies in ecology, evolution, and disease biology. We outline technical and methodological details to optimize quantification of individual feeding rates, improve accuracy, and minimize sampling error.
  3. This high‐throughput assay offers several advantages over previous methods, including i) substantially reduced time allotments per sample to facilitate larger, more efficient experiments; ii) technical replicates; and iii) conversion of in vivo measurements to units (mL‐1 hr‐1 ind‐1) which enables broad‐scale comparisons across an array of taxa and studies.
  4. To evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of our approach, we use the zooplankton, Daphnia dentifera, as a case study. Our results indicate that this procedure accurately quantifies feeding rates and highlights differences among seven genotypes.
  5. The method detailed here has broad applicability to a diverse array of aquatic taxa, their resources, environmental contaminants (e.g., plastics), and infectious agents. We discuss simple extensions to quantify epidemiologically relevant traits, such as pathogen exposure and transmission rates, for infectious agents with oral or trophic transmission.
  相似文献   
7.
The linkage of the Phi, Pgd, Po2, S, H and halothane sensitivity loci was followed in a Belgian Landrace family, heterozygous for these systems over 6 generations. Recombination next to the S locus occurred mainly in pigs belonging to this particular family. From this investigation the position of the S locus is proved to be outwith the Phi-Pgd region, next to Phi . Therefore the gene sequence S - Phi - Hal -H- Po2 -Pgd is proposed. Higher recombination rates were observed in the female parental line of the multiheterozygous family when compared to the male parental line. Additional data from animals, unrelated to this strain, confirm the evidence of close linkage of the S system to the nearest marker loci.  相似文献   
8.
  1. Fishing is a strong selective force and is supposed to select for earlier maturation at smaller body size. However, the extent to which fishing‐induced evolution is shaping ecosystems remains debated. This is in part because it is challenging to disentangle fishing from other selective forces (e.g., size‐structured predation and cannibalism) in complex ecosystems undergoing rapid change.
  2. Changes in maturation size from fishing and predation have previously been explored with multi‐species physiologically structured models but assumed separation of ecological and evolutionary timescales. To assess the eco‐evolutionary impact of fishing and predation at the same timescale, we developed a stochastic physiologically size‐structured food‐web model, where new phenotypes are introduced randomly through time enabling dynamic simulation of species'' relative maturation sizes under different types of selection pressures.
  3. Using the model, we carried out a fully factorial in silico experiment to assess how maturation size would change in the absence and presence of both fishing and predation (including cannibalism). We carried out ten replicate stochastic simulations exposed to all combinations of fishing and predation in a model community of nine interacting fish species ranging in their maximum sizes from 10 g to 100 kg. We visualized and statistically analyzed the results using linear models.
  4. The effects of fishing on maturation size depended on whether or not predation was enabled and differed substantially across species. Fishing consistently reduced the maturation sizes of two largest species whether or not predation was enabled and this decrease was seen even at low fishing intensities (F = 0.2 per year). In contrast, the maturation sizes of the three smallest species evolved to become smaller through time but this happened regardless of the levels of predation or fishing. For the four medium‐size species, the effect of fishing was highly variable with more species showing significant and larger fishing effects in the presence of predation.
  5. Ultimately our results suggest that the interactive effects of predation and fishing can have marked effects on species'' maturation sizes, but that, at least for the largest species, predation does not counterbalance the evolutionary effect of fishing. Our model also produced relative maturation sizes that are broadly consistent with empirical estimates for many fish species.
  相似文献   
9.
From three Fouquieria sp. 12 iridoid glucosides were isolated and identified. Eight of these were structurally related to galioside (monotropein methylester), while four were hydroxy substitution products of deoxyloganin. In three cases the glucoside occurred together with the corresponding 10-O-acetate.  相似文献   
10.
For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action.  相似文献   
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