首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
相似文献
 共查询到20条相似文献,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
  1. Understanding the mechanisms underlying spatial variability of exploited fish is critical for the sustainable management of fish stocks. Empirical studies suggest that size‐selective fishing can elevate fish population spatial variability (i.e., more heterogeneous distribution) through age truncation, making the population less resilient to changing environment. However, species differ in how their spatial variability responds to age truncation and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
  2. We hypothesize that age‐specific habitat preference, together with environmental carrying capacity and landscape structure, determines the response of population spatial variability to fishing‐induced age truncation. To test these hypotheses, we design an individual‐based model of an age‐structured fish population on a two‐dimensional landscape under size‐selective fishing. Individual fish reproduces and survives, and moves between habitats according to age‐specific habitat preference and density‐dependent habitat selection.
  3. Population spatial variability elevates with increasing age truncation, and the response is stronger for populations with stronger age‐specific habitat preference. On a gradient landscape, reducing carrying capacity elevates the relative importance of density dependence in habitat selection, which weakens the response of spatial variability to age truncation for populations with strong age‐specific habitat preference. On a fragmented landscape, both populations with strong and weak age‐specific habitat preferences are restricted at local optimal habitats, and reducing carrying capacity weakens the responses of spatial variability to age truncation for both populations.
  4. Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate that to track and predict the changes in population spatial variability under exploitation, it is essential to consider the interactive effects of age‐specific habitat preference, carrying capacity, and landscape structure. To improve spatial management in fisheries, it is crucial to enhance empirical and theoretical developments in the methodology to quantify age‐specific habitat preference of marine fish, and to understand how climatic change influences carrying capacity and landscape continuity.
  相似文献   

2.
  1. Mutual reinforcement between abiotic and biotic factors can drive small populations into a catastrophic downward spiral to extinction—a process known as the “extinction vortex.” However, empirical studies investigating extinction dynamics in relation to species'' traits have been lacking.
  2. We assembled a database of 35 vertebrate populations monitored to extirpation over a period of at least ten years, represented by 32 different species, including 25 birds, five mammals, and two reptiles. We supplemented these population time series with species‐specific mean adult body size to investigate whether this key intrinsic trait affects the dynamics of populations declining toward extinction.
  3. We performed three analyses to quantify the effects of adult body size on three characteristics of population dynamics: time to extinction, population growth rate, and residual variability in population growth rate.
  4. Our results provide support for the existence of extinction vortex dynamics in extirpated populations. We show that populations typically decline nonlinearly to extinction, while both the rate of population decline and variability in population growth rate increase as extinction is approached. Our results also suggest that smaller‐bodied species are particularly prone to the extinction vortex, with larger increases in rates of population decline and population growth rate variability when compared to larger‐bodied species.
  5. Our results reaffirm and extend our understanding of extinction dynamics in real‐life extirpated populations. In particular, we suggest that smaller‐bodied species may be at greater risk of rapid collapse to extinction than larger‐bodied species, and thus, management of smaller‐bodied species should focus on maintaining higher population abundances as a priority.
  相似文献   

3.
  1. Individual space and resource use are central issues in ecology and conservation. Recent technological advances such as automated tracking techniques are boosting ecological research in this field. However, the development of a robust method to track space and resource use is still challenging for at least one important ecosystem component: motile aquatic macroinvertebrates. The challenges are mostly related to the small body size and rapid movement of many macroinvertebrate species and to light scattering and wave signal interference in aquatic habitats.
  2. We developed a video tracking method designed to reliably assess space use behavior among individual aquatic macroinvertebrates under laboratory (microcosm) conditions. The approach involves the use of experimental apparatus integrating a near infrared backlight source, a Plexiglas multi‐patch maze, multiple infrared cameras, and automated video analysis. It allows detection of the position of fast‐moving (~ 3 cm/s) and translucent individuals of small size (~ 5 mm in length, ~1 mg in dry weight) on simulated resource patches distributed over an experimental microcosm (0.08 m2).
  3. To illustrate the adequacy of the proposed method, we present a case study regarding the size dependency of space use behavior in the model organism Gammarus insensibilis, focusing on individual patch selection, giving‐up times, and cumulative space used.
  4. In the case study, primary data were collected on individual body size and individual locomotory behavior, for example, mean speed, acceleration, and step length. Individual entrance and departure times were recorded for each simulated resource patch in the experimental maze. Individual giving‐up times were found to be characterized by negative size dependency, with patch departure occurring sooner in larger individuals than smaller ones, and individual cumulative space used (treated as the overall surface area of resource patches that individuals visited) was found to scale positively with body size.
  5. This approach to studying space use behavior can deepen our understanding of species coexistence, yielding insights into mechanistic models on larger spatial scales, for example, home range, with implications for ecological and evolutionary processes, as well as for the management and conservation of populations and ecosystems. Despite being specifically developed for aquatic macroinvertebrates, this method can also be applied to other small aquatic organisms such as juvenile fish and amphibians.
  相似文献   

4.
  • 1. The establishment of new botanic gardens in tropical regions highlights a need for weed risk assessment tools suitable for tropical ecosystems. The relevance of plant traits for invasion into tropical rainforests has not been well studied.
  • 2. Working in and around four botanic gardens in Indonesia where 590 alien species have been planted, we estimated the effect of four plant traits, plus time since species introduction, on: (a) the naturalization probability and (b) abundance (density) of naturalized species in adjacent native tropical rainforests; and (c) the distance that naturalized alien plants have spread from the botanic gardens.
  • 3. We found that specific leaf area (SLA) strongly differentiated 23 naturalized from 78 non‐naturalized alien species (randomly selected from 577 non‐naturalized species) in our study. These trends may indicate that aliens with high SLA, which had a higher probability of naturalization, benefit from at least two factors when establishing in tropical forests: high growth rates and occupation of forest gaps. Naturalized aliens had high SLA and tended to be short. However, plant height was not significantly related to species'' naturalization probability when considered alongside other traits.
  • 4. Alien species that were present in the gardens for over 30 years and those with small seeds also had higher probabilities of becoming naturalized, indicating that garden plants can invade the understorey of closed canopy tropical rainforests, especially when invading species are shade tolerant and have sufficient time to establish.
  • 5. On average, alien species that were not animal dispersed spread 78 m further into the forests and were more likely to naturalize than animal‐dispersed species. We did not detect relationships between the measured traits and estimated density of naturalized aliens in the adjacent forests.
  • 6. Synthesis: Traits were able to differentiate alien species from botanic gardens that naturalized in native forest from those that did not; this is promising for developing trait‐based risk assessment in the tropics. To limit the risk of invasion and spread into adjacent native forests, we suggest tropical botanic gardens avoid planting alien species with fast carbon capture strategies and those that are shade tolerant.
  相似文献   

5.
Adverse conditions during early life can cause lasting body size deficits with effects on social and sexual competition, while an accelerated growth response can allow animals to catch up in body size but can be physiologically costly as well. How animals balance growth deficits and growth compensation is predicted to depend on the effects of each on lifetime fitness. We investigated the effects of experimental early‐life food restriction on growth, body condition, and adult contest competition in a cichlid fish (Tropheus sp.). Their longevity and aseasonal breeding suggest that, with view on lifetime reproductive success, temporarily growth‐restricted Tropheus should rather invest extra time in reaching competitive body size than risk the potential costs of accelerated growth. However, size‐selective predation pressure by gape size‐limited piscivores may have favored the evolution of an accelerated growth response to early‐life delays. Experimentally food‐restricted fish temporarily reduced their growth rate compared to a control group, but maintained their body condition factor at the control level throughout the 80‐week study period. There was no evidence for an accelerated growth response following the treatment, as the food‐restricted fish never exceeded the size‐specific growth rates that were measured in the control group. Food‐restricted fish caught up with the body size of the control group several months after the end of the treatment period and were as likely as control fish to win size‐matched contests over territories. Regardless of feeding regime, there were sex‐specific differences in growth rates and in the trajectories of condition factors over time. Females grew more slowly than males but maintained their condition factors at a high level throughout the study period, whereas the males'' condition factors declined over time. These differences may reflect sex‐specific contributions of condition and body size to adult fitness that are associated with female mouthbrooding and male competition for breeding territories.  相似文献   

6.
Predation can influence the magnitude of herbivory that grazers exert on primary producers by altering both grazer abundance and their per capita consumption rates via changes in behavior, density‐dependent effects, and size. Therefore, models based solely on changes in abundance may miss key components of grazing pressure. We estimated shifts in grazing pressure associated with changes in the abundance and per capita consumption rates of sea urchins triggered by size‐selective predation by sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Field surveys suggest that sea otters dramatically decreased the abundance and median size of sea urchins. Furthermore, laboratory experiments revealed that kelp consumption by sea urchins varied nonlinearly as a function of urchin size such that consumption rates increased to the 0.56 and 0.68 power of biomass for red and green urchins, respectively. This reveals that shifts in urchin size structure due to size‐selective predation by sea otters alter sea urchin per capita grazing rates. Comparison of two quantitative models estimating total consumptive capacity revealed that a model incorporating shifts in urchin abundance while neglecting urchin size structure overestimated grazing pressure compared to a model that incorporated size. Consequently, incorporating shifts in urchin size better predicted field estimates of kelp abundance compared to equivalent models based on urchin abundance alone. We provide strong evidence that incorporating size‐specific parameters increases our ability to describe and predict trophic interactions.  相似文献   

7.
  1. Post‐maturation growth leading to indeterminate growth patterns is widespread in nature. However, its adaptive value is unclear. Life history theory suggests this allocation strategy may be favored by temporal pulses in the intensity of mortality and/or the capacity to produce new tissues.
  2. Addressing the origin of indeterminate growth and the variability of growth patterns, we studied the growth of duck mussels, Anodonta anatina, a pan‐European unionid, in 18 Polish lakes. For each population, the sex, size, and age of collected mussels were measured to estimate Bertalanffy''s growth curve parameters. We integrated information on A. anatina mortality rates, lake trophy, biofouling by zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, and the prevalence of parasitic trematode larvae to identify selective conditions in lakes.
  3. We found two sources of mortality in A. anatina populations, pertaining to adverse effects of zebra mussel biofouling and trophy state on mussel survival. Additionally, populations with heavier biofouling presented a smaller abundance of parasites, indicative of a relationship between filtering intensity and contraction of water‐borne trematode larvae by filtering A. anatina.
  4. Consistently for each sex, populations with a greater trophy‐related mortality were characterized in A. anatina by a smaller asymptotic size Lmax, indicative of a life history response to mortality risk involving early maturation at a smaller body size. In all populations, females featured higher mortality and larger asymptotic size versus males.
  5. Our findings support a theoretical view that adaptive responses to selection involve adjustments in the lifetime resource allocation patterns. These adjustments should be considered drivers of the origin of indeterminate growth strategy in species taking parental care by offspring brooding in body cavities.
  相似文献   

8.
Cannibalism among predators is a key intraspecific interaction affecting their density and foraging behavior, eventually modifying the strength of predation on heterospecific prey. Interestingly, previous studies showed that cannibalism among predators can increase or reduce predation on heterospecific prey; however, we know less about the factors that lead to these outcomes. Using a simple pond community consisting of Hynobius retardatus salamander larvae and their associated prey, I report empirical evidence that cannibalism among predators can increase predation on large heterospecific prey but reduce that on small heterospecific prey. In a field‐enclosure experiment in which I manipulated the occurrence of salamander cannibalism, I found that salamander cannibalism increased predation on frog tadpoles but reduced that on aquatic insects simultaneously. The contrasting effects are most likely to be explained by prey body size. In the study system, frog tadpoles were too large for non‐cannibal salamanders to consume, while aquatic insects were within the non‐cannibals’ consumable prey size range. However, when cannibalism occurred, a few individuals that succeeded in cannibalizing reached large enough size to consume frog tadpoles. Consequently, although cannibalism among salamanders reduced their density, salamander cannibalism increased predation on large prey frog tadpoles. Meanwhile, salamander cannibalism reduced predation on small prey aquatic insects probably because of a density reduction of non‐cannibals primarily consuming aquatic insects. Body size is often correlated with various ecological traits, for instance, diet width, consumption, and excretion rates, and is thus considered a good indicator of species’ effects on ecosystem function. All this considered, cannibalism among predators could eventually affect ecosystem function by shifting the size composition of the prey community.  相似文献   

9.
Estimates of demographic rates for animal populations and individuals have many applications for ecological and conservation research. In many animals, survival is size‐dependent, but estimating the form of the size–survival relationship presents challenges. For elusive species with low recapture rates, individuals’ size will be unknown at many points in time. Integrating growth and capture–mark–recapture models in a Bayesian framework empowers researchers to impute missing size data, with uncertainty, and include size as a covariate of survival, capture probability, and presence on‐site. If there is no theoretical expectation for the shape of the size–survival relationship, spline functions can allow for fitting flexible, data‐driven estimates. We use long‐term capture–mark–recapture data from the endangered San Francisco gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) to fit an integrated growth–survival model. Growth models showed that females reach longer asymptotic lengths than males and that the magnitude of sexual size dimorphism differed among populations. The capture probability and availability of San Francisco gartersnakes for capture increased with snout–vent length. The survival rate of female snakes exhibits a nonlinear relationship with snout–vent length (SVL), with survival flat between 300 mm and 550 mm SVL before decreasing for females between 550 mm and 700 mm SVL. For male snakes, survival decreased for adult males >550 mm SVL. The survival rates of the smallest and largest San Francisco gartersnakes were highly uncertain because recapture rates were very low for these sizes. By integrating growth and survival models and using penalized splines, we found support for size‐dependent survival in San Francisco gartersnakes. Our results have applications for devising management activities for this endangered subspecies, and our methods could be applied broadly to the study of size‐dependent demography among animals.  相似文献   

10.
Climate change and harvesting can affect the ecosystems'' functioning by altering the population dynamics and interactions among species. Knowing how species interact is essential for better understanding potentially unintended consequences of harvest on multiple species in ecosystems. I analyzed how stage‐specific interactions between two harvested competitors, the haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), living in the Barents Sea affect the outcome of changes in the harvest of the two species. Using state‐space models that account for observation errors and stochasticity in the population dynamics, I run different harvesting scenarios and track population‐level responses of both species. The increasing temperature elevated the number of larvae of haddock but did not significantly influence the older age‐classes. The nature of the interactions between both species shifted from predator‐prey to competition around age‐2 to ‐3. Increased cod fishing mortality, which led to decreasing abundance of cod, was associated with an increasing overall abundance of haddock, which suggests compensatory dynamics of both species. From a stage‐specific approach, I show that a change in the abundance in one species may propagate to other species, threatening the exploited species'' recovery. Thus, this study demonstrates that considering interactions among life history stages of harvested species is essential to enhance species'' co‐existence in harvested ecosystems. The approach developed in this study steps forward the analyses of effects of harvest and climate in multi‐species systems by considering the comprehension of complex ecological processes to facilitate the sustainable use of natural resources.  相似文献   

11.
  1. The development of encompassing general models of ecology is precluded by underrepresentation of certain taxa and systems. Models predicting context‐dependent outcomes of biotic interactions have been tested using plants and bacteria, but their applicability to higher taxa is largely unknown.
  2. We examined context dependency in a reproductive mutualism between two stream fish species: mound nest‐building bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus and mountain redbelly dace Chrosomus oreas, which often uses N. leptocephalus nests for spawning. We hypothesized that increased predator density and decreased substrate availability would increase the propensity of C. oreas to associate with N. leptocephalus and decrease reproductive success of both species.
  3. In a large‐scale in situ experiment, we manipulated egg predator density and presence of both symbionts (biotic context), and replicated the experiment in habitats containing high‐ and low‐quality spawning substrate (abiotic context).
  4. Contradictory to our first hypothesis, we observed that C. oreas did not spawn without its host. The interaction outcome switched from commensalistic to mutualistic with changing abiotic and biotic contexts, although the net outcome was mutualistic.
  5. The results of this study yielded novel insight into how context dependency operates in vertebrate mutualisms. Although the dilution effect provided by C. oreas positively influenced reproductive success of N. leptocephalus, it was not enough to overcome both egg predation and poor spawning habitat quality. Outcomes of the interaction may be ultimately determined by associate density. Studies of context dependency in vertebrate systems require detailed knowledge of species life‐history traits.
  相似文献   

12.
  1. There is growing evidence that prey perceive the risk of predation and alter their behavior in response, resulting in changes in spatial distribution and potential fitness consequences. Previous approaches to mapping predation risk across a landscape quantify predator space use to estimate potential predator‐prey encounters, yet this approach does not account for successful predator attack resulting in prey mortality. An exception is a prey kill site that reflects an encounter resulting in mortality, but obtaining information on kill sites is expensive and requires time to accumulate adequate sample sizes.
  2. We illustrate an alternative approach using predator scat locations and their contents to quantify spatial predation risk for elk (Cervus canadensis) from multiple predators in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We surveyed over 1300 km to detect scats of bears (Ursus arctos/U. americanus), cougars (Puma concolor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and wolves (C. lupus). To derive spatial predation risk, we combined predictions of scat‐based resource selection functions (RSFs) weighted by predator abundance with predictions that a predator‐specific scat in a location contained elk. We evaluated the scat‐based predictions of predation risk by correlating them to predictions based on elk kill sites. We also compared scat‐based predation risk on summer ranges of elk following three migratory tactics for consistency with telemetry‐based metrics of predation risk and cause‐specific mortality of elk.
  3. We found a strong correlation between the scat‐based approach presented here and predation risk predicted by kill sites and (r = .98, p < .001). Elk migrating east of the Ya Ha Tinda winter range were exposed to the highest predation risk from cougars, resident elk summering on the Ya Ha Tinda winter range were exposed to the highest predation risk from wolves and coyotes, and elk migrating west to summer in Banff National Park were exposed to highest risk of encountering bears, but it was less likely to find elk in bear scats than in other areas. These patterns were consistent with previous estimates of spatial risk based on telemetry of collared predators and recent cause‐specific mortality patterns in elk.
  4. A scat‐based approach can provide a cost‐efficient alternative to kill sites of quantifying broad‐scale, spatial patterns in risk of predation for prey particularly in multiple predator species systems.
  相似文献   

13.
Sex is evolutionarily more costly than parthenogenesis, evolutionary ecologists therefore wonder why sex is much more frequent than parthenogenesis in the majority of animal lineages. Intriguingly, parthenogenetic individuals and species are as common as or even more common than sexuals in some major and putative ancient animal lineages such as oribatid mites and rotifers. Here, we analyzed oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) as a model group because these mites are ancient (early Paleozoic), widely distributed around the globe, and include a high number of parthenogenetic species, which often co‐exist with sexual oribatid mite species. There is evidence that the reproductive mode is phylogenetically conserved in oribatid mites, which makes them an ideal model to test hypotheses on the relationship between reproductive mode and species'' ecological strategies. We used oribatid mites to test the frozen niche variation hypothesis; we hypothesized that parthenogenetic oribatid mites occupy narrow specialized ecological niches. We used the geographic range of species as a proxy for specialization as specialized species typically do have narrower geographic ranges than generalistic species. After correcting for phylogenetic signal in reproductive mode and demonstrating that geographic range size has no phylogenetic signal, we found that parthenogenetic lineages have a higher probability to have broader geographic ranges than sexual species arguing against the frozen niche variation hypothesis. Rather, the results suggest that parthenogenetic oribatid mite species are more generalistic than sexual species supporting the general‐purpose genotype hypothesis. The reason why parthenogenetic oribatid mite species are generalists with wide geographic range sizes might be that they are of ancient origin reflecting that they adapted to varying environmental conditions during evolutionary history. Overall, our findings indicate that parthenogenetic oribatid mite species possess a widely adapted general‐purpose genotype and therefore might be viewed as “Jack‐of‐all‐trades.”  相似文献   

14.
An organism''s body size plays an important role in ecological interactions such as predator–prey relationships. As predators are typically larger than their prey, this often leads to a strong positive relationship between body size and trophic position in aquatic ecosystems. The distribution of body sizes in a community can thus be an indicator of the strengths of predator–prey interactions. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the relationship between fish body size distribution and trophic position in a wide range of European lakes. We used quantile regression to examine the relationship between fish species'' trophic position and their log‐transformed maximum body mass for 48 fish species found in 235 European lakes. Subsequently, we examined whether the slopes of the continuous community size distributions, estimated by maximum likelihood, were predicted by trophic position, predator–prey mass ratio (PPMR), or abundance (number per unit effort) of fish communities in these lakes. We found a positive linear relationship between species'' maximum body mass and average trophic position in fishes only for the 75% quantile, contrasting our expectation that species'' trophic position systematically increases with maximum body mass for fish species in European lakes. Consequently, the size spectrum slope was not related to the average community trophic position, but there were negative effects of community PPMR and total fish abundance on the size spectrum slope. We conclude that predator–prey interactions likely do not contribute strongly to shaping community size distributions in these lakes.  相似文献   

15.
  1. In species providing extended parental care, one or both parents care for altricial young over a period including more than one breeding season. We expect large parental investment and long‐term dependency within family units to cause high variability in life trajectories among individuals with complex consequences at the population level. So far, models for estimating demographic parameters in free‐ranging animal populations mostly ignore extended parental care, thereby limiting our understanding of its consequences on parents and offspring life histories.
  2. We designed a capture–recapture multievent model for studying the demography of species providing extended parental care. It handles statistical multiple‐year dependency among individual demographic parameters grouped within family units, variable litter size, and uncertainty on the timing at offspring independence. It allows for the evaluation of trade‐offs among demographic parameters, the influence of past reproductive history on the caring parent''s survival status, breeding probability, and litter size probability, while accounting for imperfect detection of family units. We assess the model performance using simulated data and illustrate its use with a long‐term dataset collected on the Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus).
  3. Our model performed well in terms of bias and mean square error and in estimating demographic parameters in all simulated scenarios, both when offspring departure probability from the family unit occurred at a constant rate or varied during the field season depending on the date of capture. For the polar bear case study, we provide estimates of adult and dependent offspring survival rates, breeding probability, and litter size probability. Results showed that the outcome of the previous reproduction influenced breeding probability.
  4. Overall, our results show the importance of accounting for i) the multiple‐year statistical dependency within family units, ii) uncertainty on the timing at offspring independence, and iii) past reproductive history of the caring parent. If ignored, estimates obtained for breeding probability, litter size, and survival can be biased. This is of interest in terms of conservation because species providing extended parental care are often long‐living mammals vulnerable or threatened with extinction.
  相似文献   

16.
  1. Almost all organisms grow in size during their lifetime and switch diets, trophic positions, and interacting partners as they grow. Such ontogenetic development introduces life‐history stages and flows of biomass between the stages through growth and reproduction. However, current research on complex food webs rarely considers life‐history stages. The few previously proposed methods do not take full advantage of the existing food web structural models that can produce realistic food web topologies.
  2. We extended the niche model developed by Williams and Martinez (Nature, 2000, 404, 180–183) to generate food webs that included trophic species with a life‐history stage structure. Our method aggregated trophic species based on niche overlap to form a life‐history structured population; therefore, it largely preserved the topological structure of food webs generated by the niche model. We applied the theory of allometric predator–prey body mass ratio and parameterized an allometric bioenergetic model augmented with biomass flow between stages via growth and reproduction to study the effects of a stage structure on the stability of food webs.
  3. When life‐history stages were linked via growth and reproduction, more food webs persisted, and persisting food webs tended to retain more trophic species. Topological differences between persisting linked and unlinked food webs were small to modest. The slopes of biomass spectra were lower, and weak interaction links were more prevalent in the linked food webs than the unlinked ones, suggesting that a life‐history stage structure promotes characteristics that can enhance stability of complex food webs.
  4. Our results suggest a positive relationship between the complexity and stability of complex food webs. A life‐history stage structure in food webs may play important roles in dynamics of and diversity in food webs.
  相似文献   

17.
  1. Color research continuously demands better methods and larger sample sizes. Citizen science (CS) projects are producing an ever‐growing geo‐ and time‐referenced set of photographs of organisms. These datasets have the potential to make a huge contribution to color research, but the reliability of these data need to be tested before widespread implementation.
  2. We compared the difference between color extracted from CS photographs with that of color extracted from controlled lighting conditions (i.e., the current gold standard in spectrometry) for both birds and plants. First, we tested the ability of CS photographs to quantify interspecific variability by assessing > 9,000 CS photographs of 537 Australian bird species with controlled museum spectrometry data. Second, we tested the ability of CS photographs to quantify intraspecific variability by measuring petal color data for two plant species using seven methods/sources with varying levels of control.
  3. For interspecific questions, we found that by averaging out variability through a large sample size, CS photographs capture a large proportion of across species variation in plumage color within the visual part of the spectrum (R2 = 0.68–0.71 for RGB space and 0.72–0.77 for CIE‐LAB space). Between 12 and 14 photographs per species are necessary to achieve this averaging effect for interspecific studies. Unsurprisingly, the CS photographs taken with commercial cameras failed to capture information in the UV part of the spectrum. For intraspecific questions, decreasing levels of control increase the color variation but averaging larger sample sizes can partially mitigate this, aside from particular issues related to saturation and irregularities in light capture.
  4. CS photographs offer a very large sample size across space and time which offers statistical power for many color research questions. This study shows that CS photographs contain data that lines up closely with controlled measurements within the visual spectrum if the sample size is large enough, highlighting the potential of CS photographs for both interspecific and intraspecific ecological or biological questions. With regard to analyzing color in CS photographs, we suggest, as a starting point, to measure multiple random points within the ROI of each photograph for both patterned and unpatterned patches and approach the recommended sample size of 12–14 photographs per species for interspecific studies. Overall, this study provides groundwork in analyzing the reliability of a novel method, which can propel the field of studying color forward.
  相似文献   

18.
  1. Recent studies found that the majority of shrub and tree species are associated with both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. However, our knowledge on how different mycorrhizal types interact with each other is still limited. We asked whether the combination of hosts with a preferred association with either AM or EM fungi increases the host tree roots’ mycorrhization rate and affects AM and EM fungal richness and community composition.
  2. We established a tree diversity experiment, where five tree species of each of the two mycorrhiza types were planted in monocultures, two‐species and four‐species mixtures. We applied morphological assessment to estimate mycorrhization rates and next‐generation molecular sequencing to quantify mycobiont richness.
  3. Both the morphological and molecular assessment revealed dual‐mycorrhizal colonization in 79% and 100% of the samples, respectively. OTU community composition strongly differed between AM and EM trees. While host tree species richness did not affect mycorrhization rates, we observed significant effects of mixing AM‐ and EM‐associated hosts in AM mycorrhization rate. Glomeromycota richness was larger in monotypic AM tree combinations than in AM‐EM mixtures, pointing to a dilution or suppression effect of AM by EM trees. We found a strong match between morphological quantification of AM mycorrhization rate and Glomeromycota richness.
  4. Synthesis. We provide evidence that the combination of hosts differing in their preferred mycorrhiza association affects the host''s fungal community composition, thus revealing important biotic interactions among trees and their associated fungi.
  相似文献   

19.
Climate change and fisheries exploitation are dramatically changing the abundances, species composition, and size spectra of fish communities. We explore whether variation in ‘abundance size spectra’, a widely studied ecosystem feature, is influenced by a parameter theorized to govern the shape of size‐structured ecosystems—the relationship between the sizes of predators and their prey (predator–prey mass ratios, or PPMRs). PPMR estimates are lacking for avast number of fish species, including at the scale of trophic guilds. Using measurements of 8128 prey items in gut contents of 97 reef fish species, we established predator–prey mass ratios (PPMRs) for four major trophic guilds (piscivores, invertivores, planktivores, and herbivores) using linear mixed effects models. To assess the theoretical predictions that higher community‐level PPMRs leads to shallower size spectrum slopes, we compared observations of both ecosystem metrics for ~15,000 coastal reef sites distributed around Australia. PPMRs of individual fishes were remarkably high (median ~71,000), with significant variation between different trophic guilds (~890 for piscivores; ~83,000 for planktivores), and ~8700 for whole communities. Community‐level PPMRs were positively related to size spectrum slopes, broadly consistent with theory, however, this pattern was also influenced by the latitudinal temperature gradient. Tropical reefs showed a stronger relationship between community‐level PPMRs and community size spectrum slopes than temperate reefs. The extent that these patterns apply outside Australia and consequences for community structure and dynamics are key areas for future investigation.  相似文献   

20.
Habitat alterations resulting from land‐use change are major drivers of global biodiversity losses. In Africa, these threats are especially severe. For instance, demand to convert land into agricultural uses is leading to increasing areas of drylands in southern and central Africa being transformed for agriculture. In Zimbabwe, a land reform programme provided an opportunity to study the biodiversity response to abrupt habitat modification in part of a 91,000 ha dryland area of semi‐natural savannah used since 1930 for low‐level cattle ranching. Small‐scale subsistence farms were created during 2001–2002 in 65,000 ha of this area, with ranching continuing in the remaining unchanged area. We measured the compositions of bird communities in farmed and ranched land over 8 years, commencing one decade after subsistence farms were established. Over the study period, repeated counts were made along the same 45 transects to assess species'' population changes that may have resulted from trait‐filtering responses to habitat disturbance. In 2012, avian species'' richness was substantially higher (+8.8%) in the farmland bird community than in the unmodified ranched area. Temporal trends over the study period showed increased species'' richness in the ranched area (+12.3%) and farmland (+6.8%). There were increased abundances in birds of most sizes, and in all feeding guilds. New species did not add new functional traits, and no species with distinctive traits were lost in either area. As a result, species'' diversity reduced, and functional redundancy increased by 6.8% in ranched land. By 2020, two decades after part of the ranched savannah was converted into farmland, the compositions of the two bird communities had both changed and became more similar. The broadly benign impact on birds of land conversion into subsistence farms is attributed to the relatively low level of agricultural activity in the farmland and the large regional pool of nonspecialist bird species.  相似文献   

设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号