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1.
The discovery that the single p53 gene encodes several different p53 protein isoforms has initiated a flurry of research into the function and regulation of these novel p53 proteins. Full-length p53 protein level is primarily regulated by the E3-ligase Mdm2, which promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that all of the novel p53 isoforms are ubiquitinated and degraded to varying degrees in an Mdm2-dependent and -independent manner, and that high-risk human papillomavirus can degrade some but not all of the novel isoforms, demonstrating that full-length p53 and the p53 isoforms are differentially regulated. In addition, we provide the first evidence that Mdm2 promotes the NEDDylation of p53β. Altogether, our data indicates that Mdm2 can distinguish between the p53 isoforms and modify them differently.  相似文献   
2.
DNA glycosylases remove damaged or modified nucleobases by cleaving the N-glycosyl bond and the correct nucleotide is restored through subsequent base excision repair. In addition to excising threatening lesions, DNA glycosylases contribute to epigenetic regulation by mediating DNA demethylation and perform other important functions. However, the catalytic mechanism remains poorly defined for many glycosylases, including MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain IV), a member of the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily. MBD4 excises thymine from G·T mispairs, suppressing mutations caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine, and it removes uracil and modified uracils (e.g., 5-hydroxymethyluracil) mispaired with guanine. To investigate the mechanism of MBD4 we solved high-resolution structures of enzyme-DNA complexes at three stages of catalysis. Using a non-cleavable substrate analog, 2′-deoxy-pseudouridine, we determined the first structure of an enzyme-substrate complex for wild-type MBD4, which confirms interactions that mediate lesion recognition and suggests that a catalytic Asp, highly conserved in HhH enzymes, binds the putative nucleophilic water molecule and stabilizes the transition state. Observation that mutating the Asp (to Gly) reduces activity by 2700-fold indicates an important role in catalysis, but probably not one as the nucleophile in a double-displacement reaction, as previously suggested. Consistent with direct-displacement hydrolysis, a structure of the enzyme-product complex indicates a reaction leading to inversion of configuration. A structure with DNA containing 1-azadeoxyribose models a potential oxacarbenium-ion intermediate and suggests the Asp could facilitate migration of the electrophile towards the nucleophilic water. Finally, the structures provide detailed snapshots of the HhH motif, informing how these ubiquitous metal-binding elements mediate DNA binding.  相似文献   
3.
6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (ATP: D-fructose-6-phosphate-2-phosphotransferase) and D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities have been found in extracts prepared from etiolated mung bean seedlings. The activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase exhibits a sigmoidal shape in response to changes in concentrations of both substrates, D-fructose 6-phosphate and ATP (S0.5 values of 1.8 and 1.2 mM, respectively). Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) has a strong stimulating effect on the 2-kinase activity (A0.5 at about 2 mM), moderately increasing the Vmax and modifying the response into hyperbolic curves with Km values of 0.4 and 0.2 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, respectively. 3-Phosphoglycerate (I0.5 about 0.15 mM) partially inhibited the kinase activity by counteracting the Pi activation. In contrast, the activity of D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Km 0.38 mM) is strongly inhibited by Pi (I0.5 0.8 mM) lowering its affinity to fructose-2,6-P2 (Km 1.4 mM). 3-Phosphoglycerate activites the enzyme (A0.5 at about 0.3 mM) without causing a significant change in its Km for fructose-2,6-P2. The activities of both of these enzymes in relationship to the metabolic role of D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the germinating seed is discussed.  相似文献   
4.
Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28).Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.  相似文献   
5.
《Cell reports》2020,30(1):112-123.e4
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6.
(+)-2,9 alpha-Dimethyl-5-(m-hydroxyphenyl)morphan is the only phenylmorphan analog whose affinity for opioid kappa-receptors is greater than its affinity for opioid mu-receptors. Pharmacologically, the compound is a pure opioid antagonist devoid of agonist activity in in vivo assays of antinociception. The absolute configuration of the compound has been determined to be (1R,5S,9R) from an X-ray crystallographic study of the chloride salt. Thus, the absolute configuration corresponds to that of the atypical opioid agonist (-)-phenylmorphan while the weak atypical agonist (-)-2,9 alpha-dimethyl-5-(m- hydroxyphenyl)morphan corresponds to the potent morphine-like (+)-phenylmorphan. The preferred orientations of the phenyl ring for the two stereoisomers were determined using the molecular mechanics program MM2-87 and found to vary from that of the two parent compounds. The atypical properties of the two 9 alpha-methyl analogs is consistent with an opioid ligand model which proposes that morphine-like properties require a particular range of phenyl orientations. There was good agreement between the structure obtained from X-ray crystallography and computed with the MM2-87 program.  相似文献   
7.
The linkage of the Phi, Pgd, Po2, S, H and halothane sensitivity loci was followed in a Belgian Landrace family, heterozygous for these systems over 6 generations. Recombination next to the S locus occurred mainly in pigs belonging to this particular family. From this investigation the position of the S locus is proved to be outwith the Phi-Pgd region, next to Phi . Therefore the gene sequence S - Phi - Hal -H- Po2 -Pgd is proposed. Higher recombination rates were observed in the female parental line of the multiheterozygous family when compared to the male parental line. Additional data from animals, unrelated to this strain, confirm the evidence of close linkage of the S system to the nearest marker loci.  相似文献   
8.
W D Davies  J Pittard  B E Davidson 《Gene》1985,33(3):323-331
Defective transducing phages carrying aroG, the structural gene for phenylalanine (phe)-inhibitable phospho-2-keto-heptonate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.15; previously known as 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase[phe]), have been isolated, and DNA from two of these phages has been used to construct a restriction map of the region from att lambda to aroG. A 7.6-kb PstI-HindIII fragment from one of these phages was cloned into pBR322 and shown to contain aroG. The location of aroG within the 7.6 kb was established by subcloning and Tn3 transpositional mutagenesis. A fragment carrying the aroG promoter and operator has been cloned into a high copy number promoter-cloning vector (pMC489), and the resulting aroGpo-LacZ' (alpha) fusion subcloned in a low copy number vector. Strains with this fusion on the low copy number vector exhibit negative regulation of beta-galactosidase expression by both phenylalanine and tryptophan and positive regulation by tyrosine in a tyrR+ background.  相似文献   
9.
10.
The mechanism of the binding of 2-(4'-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA) to bovine serum albumin was studied by relaxation methods as well as the binding isotherm using gel chromatography. A single relaxation was observed over a wide range of HABA concentration except at the extremes of high concentration where another slow process was observed. The concentration dependence of the reciprocal relaxation time of the fast process decreased monotonically with increase in concentration of HABA at constant polymer concentration. The data were analyzed on the basis of Brown's domain structure model and were found to be consistent with a sequential binding mechanism. The azohydrazon tautomerism of HABA was identified with the intramolecular step of the complex. The activation parameters of the step, determined from the temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the fast process, showed that this step is rate limited by an enthalpy barrier in both forward and backward directions. Comparison of the activation parameters with those of other serum albumin-ligand systems suggests that there is an enthalpy-entropy compensation in the activation process of the intramolecular step with the compensation temperature at about 270 K; the enthalpy-entropy compensation is thought to be related to the hydrophobic nature of the ligand.  相似文献   
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