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1.
Desulfurization of model and diesel oils by resting cells of Gordona sp.   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The desulfurization activity of the resting cells of Gordona sp. CYKS1 was strongly depended on harvest time and the highest value when the cells had been harvested in the early growth phase (0.12 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1). For the model oil, hexadecane containing dibenzothiophene, the specific desulfurization rate decreased as the reaction proceeded. Both the specific and the volumetric desulfurization rates were not significantly affected by the aqueous-to-oil phase ratio. The diesel oils, light gas oil and a middle distillate unit feed were desulfurized at higher rates (ca. 0.34 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1) than the model oil (0.12 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1).  相似文献   
2.
DNA glycosylases remove damaged or modified nucleobases by cleaving the N-glycosyl bond and the correct nucleotide is restored through subsequent base excision repair. In addition to excising threatening lesions, DNA glycosylases contribute to epigenetic regulation by mediating DNA demethylation and perform other important functions. However, the catalytic mechanism remains poorly defined for many glycosylases, including MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain IV), a member of the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily. MBD4 excises thymine from G·T mispairs, suppressing mutations caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine, and it removes uracil and modified uracils (e.g., 5-hydroxymethyluracil) mispaired with guanine. To investigate the mechanism of MBD4 we solved high-resolution structures of enzyme-DNA complexes at three stages of catalysis. Using a non-cleavable substrate analog, 2′-deoxy-pseudouridine, we determined the first structure of an enzyme-substrate complex for wild-type MBD4, which confirms interactions that mediate lesion recognition and suggests that a catalytic Asp, highly conserved in HhH enzymes, binds the putative nucleophilic water molecule and stabilizes the transition state. Observation that mutating the Asp (to Gly) reduces activity by 2700-fold indicates an important role in catalysis, but probably not one as the nucleophile in a double-displacement reaction, as previously suggested. Consistent with direct-displacement hydrolysis, a structure of the enzyme-product complex indicates a reaction leading to inversion of configuration. A structure with DNA containing 1-azadeoxyribose models a potential oxacarbenium-ion intermediate and suggests the Asp could facilitate migration of the electrophile towards the nucleophilic water. Finally, the structures provide detailed snapshots of the HhH motif, informing how these ubiquitous metal-binding elements mediate DNA binding.  相似文献   
3.
4.
Abstract. Nutrient conservation in vegetation affects rates of litter decomposition and soil nutrient availability. Although resorption has been traditionally considered one of the most important plant strategies to conserve nutrients in temperate forests, long leaf life‐span and low nutrient requirements have been postulated as better indicators. We aimed at identifying nutrient conservation strategies within characteristic functional groups of NW Patagonian forests on Andisols. We analysed C‐, N‐, P‐, K‐ and lignin‐concentrations in mature and senescent leaves of ten native woody species within the functional groups: broad‐leaved deciduous species, broad‐leaved evergreens and conifers. We also examined mycorrhizal associations in all species. Nutrient concentration in mature leaves and N‐ resorption were higher in broad‐leaved deciduous species than in the other two functional groups. Conifers had low mature leaf nutrient concentrations, low N‐resorption and high lignin/N ratios in senescent leaves. P‐ and K‐resorptions did not differ among functional groups. Broad‐leaved evergreens exhibited a species‐dependent response. Nitrogen in mature leaves was positively correlated with both N resorption and soil N‐fertility. Despite the high P‐retention capacity of Andisols, N appeared to be the more limiting nutrient, with most species being proficient in resorbing N but not P. The presence of endomycorrhizae in all conifers and the broad‐leaved evergreen Maytenus boaria, ectomycorrhizae in all Nothofagus species (four deciduous, one evergreen), and cluster roots in the broad‐leaved evergreen Lomatia hirsuta, would be possibly explaining why P is less limiting than N in these forests.  相似文献   
5.
Binding of the cationic tetra(tributylammoniomethyl)-substituted hydroxoaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN4) to bilayer lipid membranes was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and intramembrane field compensation (IFC) methods. With neutral phosphatidylcholine membranes, AlPcN4 appeared to bind more effectively than the negatively charged tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4), which was attributed to the enhancement of the coordination interaction of aluminum with the phosphate moiety of phosphatidylcholine by the electric field created by positively charged groups of AlPcN4. The inhibitory effect of fluoride ions on the membrane binding of both AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 supported the essential role of aluminum-phosphate coordination in the interaction of these phthalocyanines with phospholipids. The presence of negative or positive charges on the surface of lipid membranes modulated the binding of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 in accord with the character (attraction or repulsion) of the electrostatic interaction, thus showing the significant contribution of the latter to the phthalocyanine adsorption on lipid bilayers. The data on the photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 as measured by sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes correlated well with the binding data obtained by FCS and IFC techniques. The reduced photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 with neutral membranes violating this correlation was attributed to the concentration quenching of singlet excited states as proved by the data on the AlPcN4 fluorescence quenching.  相似文献   
6.
The cysteine-rich region (CRR) of the β2 integrin subunit was replaced by that of β1 to give the chimera β2NV1. β2NV1 can combine with αL to form a variant leukocyte-function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 on COS cell surface, suggesting that the specificity of the β2 interaction with αL does not lie in the CRR. Unlike those expressing wild-type LFA-1, COS cells expressing αLβ2NV1 are constitutively active in intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 adhesion. These results suggest that activation of LFA-1 involves the release of an intramolecular constraint, which is maintained, in part, by the authentic β2 CRR.  相似文献   
7.
 This paper deals with the use of cladistic methods and cladograms in phylogeny reconstruction in plant groups containing numerous taxa. How accurate are the cladograms as to details? Accuracy tests at the level of details require an independently known phylogeny, which excludes most plant groups, but such tests can be carried out in domesticated and experimental plant groups which have documented pedigrees. Four such tests are known and are presented here: a new case in Gilia and three previously published cases in Avena, Hordeum, and Helianthus. The four cases include domesticated and experimental plants, use of morphological and molecular evidence, and presence of dichotomous as well as reticulate phylogenies. The cladograms of the four plant groups all differ in significant details from the known pedigrees. These results are discussed in relation to problems of interpretation of cladograms. Received March 21, 2000 Accepted August 16, 2001  相似文献   
8.
《Cell reports》2020,30(1):112-123.e4
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9.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) is extensively used as tumour marker as it strongly recognises the cancer specific T antigen (Galβ1→3GalNAc-), but not its sialylated version. However, an additional specificity towards Galβ1→4GlcNAc (LacNAc), which is not tumour specific, had been attributed to PNA. For correct interpretation of lectin histochemical results we examined PNA sugar specificity using naturally occurring or semi-synthetic glycoproteins, matrix-immobilised galactosides and lectin-binding tissue glycoproteins, rather than mono- or disaccharides as ligands. Dot-blots, transfer blots or polystyrene plate coatings of the soluble glycoconjugates were probed with horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates of PNA and other lectins of known specificity. Modifications of PNA-binding glycoproteins, including selective removal of O-linked oligosaccharides and treatment with glycosidases revealed that Galβ1→4GlcNAc (LacNAc) was ineffective while terminal α-linked galactose (TAG) as well as exposed T antigen (Galβ1→3 GalNAc-) was excellent as sugar moiety in glycoproteins for their recognition by PNA. When immobilised, melibiose was superior to lactose in PNA binding. Results were confirmed using TAG-specific human serum anti-α-galactoside antibody.  相似文献   
10.
We encountered a fourth case of honey allergy in Japan. We characterized and identified the IgE-binding proteins in honey using the serum of a honey-allergenic patient. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IgE in the patient serum specifically bound to four proteins in each honey sample. At least three of these IgE-binding proteins were N-linked glycoproteins. To identify the 60-kDa IgE-binding protein in dandelion honey, the N-terminal sequences of the fragmented protein were analyzed, revealing the protein to be major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP 1). Three IgE-binding proteins removed of N-linked oligosaccharide showed a large reduction in IgE-binding activity as compared with the intact protein. This suggests that the carbohydrates in the IgE-binding proteins are a major epitope for patient IgE.  相似文献   
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