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1.
用鲢鳙直接控制微囊藻水华的围隔试验和湖泊实践   总被引:57,自引:2,他引:55  
刘建康  谢平 《生态科学》2003,22(3):193-198
为了控制水体富营养化所形成的水华,国外经典的生物操纵论者提倡放养食鱼性鱼类以控制食浮游生物的鱼类,藉此壮大浮游动物种群,然后借助浮游动物遏制藻类。按照这条思路,以浮游生物为食的鲢和鳙应该是清除的对象。本文作者认为我国湖泊中危害性最大的是微囊藻水华,而浮游动物根本不能摄食这种水华,不如直接利用鲢鳙进行控制,因而1989-1992年间在武汉的东湖进行了三次原位围隔试验,2000年再度重复了一次围隔试验,结果证明,迄今在东湖中已消失18年的微囊藻水华,重新出现在不养鱼的围隔里。在养入一定密度的鲢或/和鳙的围隔中,就没有水华出现。已经出现水华的围隔,放入适当密度的鲢或/和鳙后,在短期内水华又复消失;而放入草鱼的围隔,则水华始终持续,不受影响。说明鲢和鳙能有效地遏制微囊藻水华。鲢、鳙遏制水华的有效放养密度(亦即有效生物量)为46-50 g·m-3。东湖湖泊中鲢、鳙的生物量,直到1985年才达到这个水平,所以1985年湖里反常地没有出现水华。往后的年份,东湖的鱼产量越来越高,也就是湖里鲢、鳙的生物量越来越大,所以迄今没有微囊藻卷土重来的机会。东湖的水质和其他非生物条件仍适于蓝藻水华的发生与发展,如果东湖鲢、鳙的产量下降到阈值以下,亦即降到1985年以前1 000 t水平,那么微囊藻及其它蓝藻  相似文献
2.
Engineering approaches (nutrient removal, sediment pumping, hypolimnion oxygenation, alum treatments) may be most appropriate to deep lakes where the aim of restoration from eutrophication is simply to reduce the production and crop of one component, the phytoplankton. They do not always give the desired results because the nutrient loading may only be reduced to a limited extent. There are additional problems in shallow lakes where change of state between community dominance (aquatic plants versus plankton) is wanted. Each community has powerful buffering mechanisms and biomanipulation may be essential to switch one state to another even with considerable nutrient reduction. For the phytoplankton-dominated community the buffers include the advantages of early growth, lower diffusion pathways for CO2, overhead shading, and an absence of large cladoceran grazers. This later is because open-water shallow environments provide no refuges against predation for the large Cladocera which are both the most efficient grazers and the most favoured prey for fish. Restoration of aquatic plants may then require provision of refuges for the grazers. Different sorts of refuge are discussed using case studies of Hoveton Great Broad and Cockshoot Broad in the Norfolk Broadland.  相似文献
3.
In order to evaluate short-term and long-term effects of fish manipulation in shallow, eutrophic lakes, empirical studies on relationships between lake water concentration of total phosphorus (P) and the occurrence of phytoplankton, submerged macrophytes and fish in Danish lakes are combined with results from three whole-lake fish manipulation experiments. After removal of less than 80 per cent of the planktivorous fish stock a short-term trophic cascade was obtained in the nutrient regimes, where large cyanobacteria were not strongly dominant and persistent. In shallow Danish lakes cyanobacteria were the most often dominating phytoplankton class in the P-range between 200 and 1 000μg P l−1. Long-term effects are suggested to be closely related to the ability of the lake to establish a permanent and wide distribution of submerged macrophytes and to create self-perpetuating increases in the ratio of piscivorous to planktivorous fish. The maximum depth at which submerged macrophytes occurred, decreased exponentially with increasing P concentration. Submerged macrophytes were absent in lakes>10 ha and with P levels above 250–300μg P l−1, but still abundant in some lakes<3 ha at 650μg P l−1. Lakes with high cover of submerged macrophytes showed higher transparencies than lakes with low cover aboveca. 50μg P l−1. These results support the alternative stable state hypothesis (clear or turbid water stages). Planktivorous fish>10 cm numerically contributed more than 80 per cent of the total planktivorous and piscivorous fish (>10 cm) in the pelagical of lakes with concentrations above 100μg P l−1. Below this threshold level the proportion of planktivores decreased markedly toca. 50 per cent at 22μg P l−1. The extent of the shift in depth colonization of submerged macrophytes and fish stock composition in the three whole-lake fish manipulations follows closely the predictions from the relationships derived from the empirical study. We conclude that a long-term effect of a reduction in the density of planktivorous fish can be expected only when the external phosphorus loading is reduced to below 0.5–2.0 g m−2 y−1. This loading is equivalent to an in-lake summer concentration below 80–150μg P l−1. Furthermore, fish manipulation as a restoration tool seems most efficient in shallow lakes.  相似文献
4.
Why do cladocerans fail to control algal blooms?   总被引:26,自引:19,他引:7  
Field studies show that even at high nutrient loads phytoplankton may be kept at low levels by filter-feeding zooplankton for a period of weeks (spring clear water phase in lakes) or months (low-stocked fish-ponds). In the absence of planktivorous fish, large-bodied cladocerans effectively control the abundance of algae of a broad size spectrum. Laboratory experiments show that, although difficult to handle and of poor nutritional value, filamentous algae can also be utilized by large-bodiedDaphnia and prevented from population increase, exactly as the principles of the biomanipulation approach would predict. This is not always the case, however. Even when released from predation, large cladocerans often cannot grow and reproduce fast enough to prevent bloom formation. Sometimes, they disappear when the bloom becomes dense, and the biomanipulation approach is not applicable any more. Recent experimental data on four differently-sizedDaphnia species are used in an attempt to (1) explain why cladocerans fail to control filamentous cyanobacteria when filament density is high, and (2) determine the critical filament density at whichDaphnia becomes ineffective. At this critical concentration,Daphnia growth and reproduction is halted, and no positive numerical response to growing phytoplankton standing crop should be expected fromDaphnia population. Bloom formation thus becomes irreversible. The question of what can be done to overcome this bottleneck of the biomanipulation approach may become one of the most challenging questions in plankton ecology in the nearest future.  相似文献
5.
The hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust, a small water body used as a swimming pool, was characterized by algal blooms in summer, reducing the Secchi disk transparency to less than 0.3 m. Since in The Netherlands a Secchi disk transparency of 1 m is obligatory for swimming waters, corrective measures were called for to improve the light climate of the lake. In March, 1987, as an experiment, the lake was drained by pumping out the water to facilitate fish elimination. Planktivorous and benthivorous fish species, which were predominant, were removed by seine- and electro-fishing. After the lake had refilled by seepage it was restocked by a new simple fish community comprising pike (Esox lucius) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) only. Stacks of willow twigs (Salix) and macrophytes (roots ofNuphar lutea and seedlings ofChara globularis) were introduced into the lake as spawning grounds and refuges for the pike against cannibalism and as shelter for the zooplankton. The effects of this food web manipulation on the light climate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, macrofauna and on the nutrient concentrations were monitored during 1987 and 1988. In summer 1987, despite of high nutrient concentrations, the phytoplankton density was low, due to control by zooplankton, causing a Secchi disk transparency of 2.5 m, the maximum depth. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were low (<5 g Chl.l–1), blooms of cyanobacteria did not occur and a shift from rotifers to cladocerans took place. In 1988, however, also some negative effects were noticed. Macrophytes and filamentous green algae reached a much higher biomass (50–60% cover of the lake bottom) than in 1987; some species, growing through the entire water column, interfered with the lake's recreational use. Associated with the macro-vegetation and possibly with the absence of larger cyprinids, the diet of which also comprises snails, a large scale development of the snail population, among themLymnaea peregra var.ovata took place. This species is known to act as an intermediate host of the bird-parasitizing trematodeTrichobilharzia ocellata, the cercariae of which cause an itching sensation at the spot of penetration of the human skin, accompanied by rash (schistosome dermatitis or swimmers' itch); in July, 1988, about 40% of the bathers complained about this itching. A positive effect of the macrophytes and filamentous green algae was the high uptake of nitrogen, resulting in a low nitrogen concentration in the lake and growth limitation of the phytoplankton population by nitrogen in the summer of 1988. In 1988 the cladocerans were abundant in April only; and unlike in 1987, in the summer of 1988 there was a shift from cladocerans to rotifers. Therefore, only in early spring (April) zooplankton grazing controlled phytoplankton growth and in summer nitrogen limitation was the major controlling factor, keeping chlorophyll-a concentrations low.  相似文献
6.
The aim of this review is to identify problems, find general patterns, and extract recommendations for successful biomanipulation. An important conclusion is that the pelagic food chain from fish to algae may not be the only process affected by a biomanipulation. Instead, this process should be viewed as the “trigger” for secondary processes, such as establishment of submerged macrophytes, reduced internal loading of nutrients, and reduced resuspension of particles from the sediment. However, fish reduction also leads to a high recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) fish, which feed extensively on zooplankton. This expansion of YOY the first years after fish reduction is probably a major reason for less successful biomanipulations. Recent, large-scale biomanipulations have made it possible to update earlier recommendations regarding when, where, and how biomanipulation should be performed. More applicable recommendations include (1) the reduction in the biomass of planktivorous fish should be 75% or more; (2) the fish reduction should be performed efficiently and rapidly (within 1–3 years); (3) efforts should be made to reduce the number of benthic feeding fish; (4) the recruitment of YOY fish should be reduced; (5) the conditions for establishment of submerged macrophytes should be improved; and (6) the external input of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) should be reduced as much as possible before the biomanipulation. Recent biomanipulations have shown that, correctly performed, the method also achieves results in large, relatively deep and eutrophic lakes, at least in a 5-year perspective. Although repeated measures may be necessary, the general conclusion is that biomanipulation is not only possible, but also a relatively inexpensive and attractive method for management of eutrophic lakes, and in particular as a follow-up measure to reduced nutrient load. Received 14 April 1998; accepted 31 August 1998  相似文献
7.
《Hydrobiologia》1990,(1):205-218
The use of fish manipulation as a tool for lake restoration in eutrophic lakes has been investigated since 1986 in three shallow, eutrophic Danish lakes. The lakes differ with respect to nutrient loading and nutrient levels (130–1000 μg P l−1, 1–6 mg N l−1). A 50% removal of planktivorous fish in the less eutrophic cyanobacteria-diatom dominated Lake V?ng caused marked changes in lower trophic levels, phosphorus concentration and transparency. Only minor changes occurred after a 78% removal of planktivorous fish in eutrophic cyanobacteria dominated Frederiksborg Castle Lake. In the hypertrophic, green algae dominated Lake S?byg?rd a low recruitment of all fish species and a 16% removal of fish biomass created substantial changes in trophic structure, but no decrease in phosphorus concentration. The different response pattern is interpreted as (1) a difference in density and persistence of bloomforming cyanobacteria caused by between-lake variations in nutrient levels and probably also mixing- and flushing rates, (2) a difference in specific loss rates through sedimentation of the algal community prevaling after the fish manipulation, (3) a decreased impact of planktivorous fish with increasing mean depth and (4) a lake specific difference in ability to create a self-increasing reduction in the phosphorus level in the lake water. This in turn seems related to the phosphorus loading.  相似文献
8.
生物操纵理论与技术在富营养化湖泊治理中的应用   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
近年来,全球范围内湖泊富营养化问题日趋严重。以生物操纵理论为指导,采用水生食物网调控、改善水质、抑制藻类的生物修复方法,为解决这一问题提供了可行的途径。论文综述了生物操纵理论的产生、发展和应用,阐述了富营养化水体生态系统中肉食性鱼类、滤食性鱼类、浮游动物、沉水植物和细菌等的作用,并针对当前生物操纵技术应用中存在的差异性问题,提出了不同湖泊应根据其特性采取不同的组合技术并重点采取相应措施的建议。  相似文献
9.
Lake Zwemlust (area 1.5 ha, Zm 1.5 m) has been the object of an extensive limnological study since its biomanipulation involving removal of planktivorous fish (bream) in March 1987 and emptying of the lake. In the subsequent summer period of 1987 the Secchi depth increased to the lake bottom (2.5 m), compared withca 30 cm in the earlier summers. The reaction of submerged macrophytes to improving under-water light climate was rapid. In summer 1987, besides the introducedChara globularis, 5 species of submerged macrophytes occurred and colonized 10% of the lake area. In 1988 and 1989 only quantitative changes were observed; new species did not appear, but the area colonized by macrophytes increased by 7 and 10 times, respectively.Elodea nuttallii was dominant among the macrophytes andMougeotia sp. among the filamentous green algae. Their abundance, contributed to transient N-limination of phytoplankton causing a persistent clear water phase in 1988 and 1989, unlike in 1987 when zooplankton grazing contributed chiefly to the water clarity. Laboratory bioassays on macrophytes confirmed nitrogen limitation.  相似文献
10.
Experimental reduction of the fish stock in two shallow lakes in The Netherlands shows that such a biomanipulation can lead to a substantial increase in transparency, which is caused not only by a decrease in algal biomass, but also by a decrease in resuspended sediment and detritus. A model was developed to describe transparency in relation to chlorophyll-a and inorganic, suspended solids (resuspended sediment). With the use of this model it is shown that more than 50% of the turbidity in these shallow lakes before biomanipulation was determined by the sediment resuspension, mainly caused by benthivorous fish. Another analysis reveals that the concentration of inorganic suspended solids and the biomass of benthivorous fish are positively correlated, and that even in the absence of algae a benthivorous fish biomass of 600 kg ha−1 can reduce the Secchi depth to 0.4 m in shallow lakes. In addition, it is argued that algal biomass is also indirectly reduced by removal of benthivorous fish. Reduction of benthivorous fish is necessary to get macrophytes and macrophytes seem to be necessary to keep the algal biomass low in nutrient-rich shallow lakes. It is concluded that the impact of benthivorous fish on the turbidity can be large, especially in shallow lakes.  相似文献
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