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1.
The hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust, a small water body used as a swimming pool, was characterized by algal blooms in summer, reducing the Secchi disk transparency to less than 0.3 m. Since in The Netherlands a Secchi disk transparency of 1 m is obligatory for swimming waters, corrective measures were called for to improve the light climate of the lake. In March, 1987, as an experiment, the lake was drained by pumping out the water to facilitate fish elimination. Planktivorous and benthivorous fish species, which were predominant, were removed by seine- and electro-fishing. After the lake had refilled by seepage it was restocked by a new simple fish community comprising pike (Esox lucius) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) only. Stacks of willow twigs (Salix) and macrophytes (roots ofNuphar lutea and seedlings ofChara globularis) were introduced into the lake as spawning grounds and refuges for the pike against cannibalism and as shelter for the zooplankton. The effects of this food web manipulation on the light climate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, macrofauna and on the nutrient concentrations were monitored during 1987 and 1988. In summer 1987, despite of high nutrient concentrations, the phytoplankton density was low, due to control by zooplankton, causing a Secchi disk transparency of 2.5 m, the maximum depth. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were low (<5 g Chl.l–1), blooms of cyanobacteria did not occur and a shift from rotifers to cladocerans took place. In 1988, however, also some negative effects were noticed. Macrophytes and filamentous green algae reached a much higher biomass (50–60% cover of the lake bottom) than in 1987; some species, growing through the entire water column, interfered with the lake's recreational use. Associated with the macro-vegetation and possibly with the absence of larger cyprinids, the diet of which also comprises snails, a large scale development of the snail population, among themLymnaea peregra var.ovata took place. This species is known to act as an intermediate host of the bird-parasitizing trematodeTrichobilharzia ocellata, the cercariae of which cause an itching sensation at the spot of penetration of the human skin, accompanied by rash (schistosome dermatitis or swimmers' itch); in July, 1988, about 40% of the bathers complained about this itching. A positive effect of the macrophytes and filamentous green algae was the high uptake of nitrogen, resulting in a low nitrogen concentration in the lake and growth limitation of the phytoplankton population by nitrogen in the summer of 1988. In 1988 the cladocerans were abundant in April only; and unlike in 1987, in the summer of 1988 there was a shift from cladocerans to rotifers. Therefore, only in early spring (April) zooplankton grazing controlled phytoplankton growth and in summer nitrogen limitation was the major controlling factor, keeping chlorophyll-a concentrations low.  相似文献
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Lake Breukeleveen (180 ha, mean depth 1.45 m), a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system, was selected to study the effects of whole-lake foodweb manipulation on a large scale. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970–1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2 g m−2 y−1 to 0.35 g m−2 y−1. The water transparency (Secchi-depthca. 30 cm), however, has not improved. The aim of the food-web manipulation in Lake Breukeleveen was not only to improve the light climate of the lake, but also to study if the successfull effects observed in small lakes (a few ha) can be upscaled. In March 1989 the standing crop of planktivorous and bentivorous fish populations was reduced by intensive fishery, fromca. 150 kg ha−1 toca. 57 kg ha−1. The lake was made unaccessible to fish migrating from the other lakes and it was stocked with large-sized daphnids and 0+ pike. However, water transparency did not increase in the following summer and autumn 1989, which is in contrast with great improvement in the light conditions previously observed in smaller lakes. The main explanations for the negative outcome in Lake Breukeleveen are: 1) the rapid increase of the planktivorous fish biomass and carnivorous cladocerans, predating on the zooplankton community; 2) suppression of the large daphnids by the high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria; 3) high turbidity of the lake due to resuspension of bottom material induced by wind, unlike in smaller lakes, and thus inability of submerged macrophytes to develop and to stabilize the ecosystem.  相似文献
3.
Whole-lake food-web manipulation was carried out in the hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust (The Netherlands), with the aim of studying the effects on the lake's trophic status and to gain an insight into complex interactions among lake communities. Before manipulation this small (1.5 ha) and shallow (1.5 m) lake was characterized byMicrocystis blooms in summer and high chlorophyll-a concentrations were common (ca. 250 μg 1−1). In March 1987 the planktivorous and benthivorous fish species in the lake were completely removed (ca. 1000 kg ha−1), a new simple fish community (pike and rudd) was introduced and artificial refuges were created. The effects of this manipulation on the light climate, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, and macrofauna were monitored during 1987, 1988 and 1989. Community interactions were investigated in phytoplankton bioassays and zooplankton grazing experiments. After the manipulation, despite the still high P and N loads to the lake (ca. 2.2 g P m−2 y−1 andca. 5.3 g N m−2 y−1), the phytoplankton density was low (Chl-a<5μg l−1), due to control by large-sized zooplankton in spring and N-limitation in summer and autumn. A marked increase in the abundance of macrophytes and filamentous green algae in 1988 and 1989, as well as N loss due to denitrification, contributed to the N limitation of the phytoplankton. Before manipulation no submerged macro-vegetation was present but in 1988, the second year after manipulation, about 50% of the lake bottom was covered by macrophytes increasing to 80% in 1989. This led to substantial accumulation of both N and P, namely 76% and 73% respectively of the total nutrients in the lake in particulate matter. Undesirable features of the increase in macrophytes were: 1) direct nuisance to swimmers; and, 2) the large scale development of snails, especiallyL. peregra, which may harbour the parasite causing ‘swimmers' itch’. But harvesting of only about 3% of the total macrophyte biomass from the swimmers' area, twice a year, reduced the nuisance for swimmers without adversely affecting the water clarity.  相似文献
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The effects of fish stock reduction have been studies in 3 Dutch lakes (Lake Zwemlust, Lake Bleiswijkse Zoom and Lake Noorddiep) and 1 Danish lake (Lake Væng) during 4–5 years. A general response id described. The fish stock reduction led in general to a low fish stock, low chlorophyii-a, high transparency and high abunuance of macrophytes. Large Daphnia became abundant, but their density decreased, due to food limitation and predation by fish. The total nitrogen concentration became low due to N-uptake by macrophytes and enhanced denitrification. In Lake Bleiswijkse Zoom the water transparency deteriorated and the clear water state was not stable. The fish stock increased and the production of young fish in summer was high. lear water occurred only in spring. Large daphnids were absent in summer and the macrophytes decreased.In Lake Zwemlust, Lake Væng and Lake Noorddiep the water remained clear during the first five years. In summer of the sixth year (1992) transparency decreased in Lake Zwemlust (with high P-concentration of 1.0 mg P l-1). Also in Lake Væng (with a low nutrient concentration of 0.15 mg P.-1) a short term turbid stage (1.5 month) occurred in summer 1992 after a sudden collapse of the macrophytes. Deterioration of the water quality seems to start in summer and seems related to a collapse in macrophytes. At a low planktivorous fishstock (e.g. Lake Væng)thhe duration of the turbid state is shorter. than in presence of a high planktivorous fish biomass (e.g. Lake Zwemlust, and later years of Lake Bleiswijkse Zoom).  相似文献
8.
Three short-term laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of a mixture of Chara globularis var. globularis Thuillier and Chara contraria var. contraria A. Braun ex Kützing on three different green algae. Single phytoplankton species were exposed to filtered water originating from charophyte cultures. Phytoplankton growth was monitored by determination of chlorophyll concentrations in batch cultures. The change in chlorophyll concentration during the experiments was analysed with a logistic growth model, resulting in an estimate of the exponential growth rate and the duration of the lag phase of the single green algae. The results indicate allelopathic effects of Chara on the growth of the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum Printz and Chlorella minutissima Fott et Nováková, whereas Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing did not seem to be affected. The exponential growth rate of S. capricornutum decreased 7% in the presence of water from a charophyte culture, while the growth rate of C. minutissima decreased with 3%. The allelopathic effect of Chara did not increase when the green alga C. minutissima was P-limited. The effect of Chara was different when young sprouts were used. With young sprouts the duration of the lag phase of C. minutissima was extended (25%), whilst for old plants the growth rate of this green alga decreased. Although the inhibiting effect of charophytes on specific phytoplankton species is rather small, the differential sensitivity of the species to Chara might influence the composition and biomass of phytoplankton communities in the field.  相似文献
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SUMMARY 1. The feeding behaviour of the zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha ) was studied in the laboratory on different combinations of food, including a green alga ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ) and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa .
2. The highest clearance rate of phytoplankton by zebra mussels was found when the mussels were feeding on a mixture of Chlamydomonas and non-toxic Microcystis , the lowest on a mixture of Chlamydomonas and toxic Microcystis .
3. The differences found in the clearance rates between food combinations can be partly explained by the production of pseudofaeces containing live phytoplankton cells. Zebra mussels expelled significantly more live phytoplankton cells in the presence of toxic Microcystis than in the presence of non-toxic Microcystis . The pseudofaeces contained predominantly live Chlamydomonas cells. Proportionately much less live Microcystis cells were encountered in the pseudofaeces.
4. Consequently, grazing of zebra mussels on a combination of Chlamydomonas and Microcystis may finally result in a dominance of Chlamydomonas over Microcystis . The presence of toxic Microcystis may even strengthen this shift.  相似文献
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