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1.
Zhang Y  Zhou J  Lim CU 《Cell research》2006,16(1):45-54
The genomes of eukaryotic cells are under continuous assault by environmental agents and endogenous metabolic byproducts. Damage induced in DNA usually leads to a cascade of cellular events, the DNA damage response. Failure of the DNA damage response can lead to development of malignancy by reducing the efficiency and fidelity of DNA repair. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS 1 complex (MRN) that plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Mutations in the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The phenotypic characteristics of cells isolated from NBS patients point to a deficiency in the repair of DNA double strand breaks. Here, we review the current knowledge of the role of NBS1 in the DNA damage response. Emphasis is placed on the role of NBS1 in the DNA double strand repair, modulation of the DNA damage sensing and signaling, cell cycle checkpoint control and maintenance oftelomere stability.  相似文献
2.
To elucidate the biological functions of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, [EC 2.4.2.30]) in DNA damage responses, genetic and biochemical approaches were undertaken. By disrupting exon 1 of the mouse PARP gene by a homologous recombination, PARP-deficient mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and mice could be produced without demonstrating lethality. PARP-/- ES cells showed complete loss of PARP activity and increased sensitivity to -irradiation and an alkylating agents, indicating a physiological role for PARP in the response to DNA damage. p53, a key molecule in cellular DNA damage response, was found to stimulate PARP activity and became poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated in the presence of damaged DNA. However, PARP-/- ES cells showed p21 and Mdm-2 mRNA induction following -irradiation, indicating that PARP activity is not indispensable for p21 and Mdm-2 mRNA induction in the established p53-cascade. On the other hand, in a reconstituted reaction system, purified PARP from human placenta suppressed the pRB-phosphorylation activity in the presence of NAD and damaged DNA. Human PARP expressed in E. coli showed a similar effect on pRB-phosphorylation activity of cdk2. These findings suggest a direct involvement of PARP in the regulation of cdk activity for cell-cycle arrest.  相似文献
3.
DNA damage immediate cellular response requires the activation of p53 by kinases. We found that p53 forms a basal stable complex with VRK1, a Ser–Thr kinase that responds to UV-induced DNA damage by specifically phosphorylating p53. This interaction takes place through the p53 DNA binding domain, and frequent DNA-contact mutants of p53, such as R273H, R248H or R280K, do not disrupt the complex. UV-induced DNA damage activates VRK1, and is accompanied by phosphorylation of p53 at Thr-18 before it accumulates. We propose that the VRK1–p53 basal complex is an early-warning system for immediate cellular responses to DNA damage.  相似文献
4.
端粒结合蛋白TRF2的研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
张永炜  缪泽鸿  丁健 《生命科学》2006,18(3):239-243
端粒DNA结合蛋白TRF2(TTAGGG repeat binding factor-2)以二聚体形式通过Myb结构域与端粒重复序列TTAGGG结合,并与TRF1、TIN2、Rap1、TINT1及POT1蛋白组成Shelterin蛋白复合物,协同在端粒动态平衡维持过程中起关键作用,进而影响整个基因组的稳定性。此外,TRF2在细胞DNA损伤应答过程中可能发挥重要作用。本文将对TRF2结构和功能研究的最新进展进行综述。  相似文献
5.
Chromatin modulation and the DNA damage response   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The ability to sense and respond appropriately to genetic lesions is vitally important to maintain the integrity of the genome. Emerging evidence indicates that various modulations to chromatin structure are centrally important to many aspects of the DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we discuss recently described roles for specific post-translational covalent modifications to histone proteins, as well as ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling, in DNA damage signalling and repair of DNA double strand breaks.  相似文献
6.
7.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone-marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and cancer susceptibility. There are 11 FA complementation groups in human where 8 genes have been identified. We found that FancD2 is conserved in evolution and present in the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The gene Y41E3.9 (CeFancD2) encodes a structural ortholog of human FANCD2 and is composed of 10 predicted exons. Our analysis showed that exons 6 and 7 were absent from a CeFancD2 EST suggesting the presence of a splice variant. In an attempt to characterize its role in DNA damage, we depleted worms of CeFANCD2 using RNAi. When the CeFANCD2(RNAi) worms were treated with a crosslinking agent, a significant drop in the progeny survival was noted. These worms were also sensitive, although to a lesser extent, to ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, these data support an important role for CeFANCD2 in DNA damage response as for its human counterpart. The data also support the usefulness of C. elegans to study the Fanconi anemia pathway, and emphasize the biological importance of FANCD2 in DNA damage response throughout evolution.  相似文献
8.
9.
Chk2/hCds1, the human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53p and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cds1p, plays a critical role in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. While several in vivo targets of Chk2 have been identified, the other target proteins of Chk2 responsible for multiple functions, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis, remain to be elucidated. We utilized the GST-peptide approach to identify physiological substrates for Chk2. Mutational analyses using GST-linked Cdc25A containing serine 123 revealed that residues at positions -5 and -3 are critical determinants for the recognition of the Chk2 substrate. We determined the general phosphorylation consensus sequence and identified in vitro targets of Chk2 using GST peptides as substrates. The newly identified in vitro target proteins include Abl1, Bub1R, Bub1, Bub3, Psk-H1, Smc3, Plk1, Cdc25B, Dcamkl1, Mre11, Pms1, and Xrcc9.  相似文献
10.

Background

Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) has been known to have critical functions in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and cell cycle by the regulation of phosphorylation of its target proteins, such as H2AX, RPA2, KAP-1, 53BP1. However, it is largely unknown how PP4 itself is regulated.

Methods

We examined the PP4C methylation on L307 at C-terminal by using methylated-leucine specific antibody. Then with PP4C L307A mutant, we explored that how nonmethylated form of PP4C affects its known cellular functions by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and DNA DSB repair assays.

Results

Here we show that PP4C is methylated on its C-terminal leucine residue in vivo and this methylation is important for cellular functions mediated by PP4. In the cells PP4C L307A mutant has significantly low activity of dephosphorylation against its known target proteins, and the loss of interaction between L307A PP4 mutant and regulatory subunits, R1, R2, or R3α/β causes the dissociation from its target proteins. Moreover, PP4C L307A mutant loses its role in both DSB repair pathways, HR (homologous recombination) and NHEJ (non-homologous end joining), which phenocopies PP4C depletion.

Conclusion

Our results demonstrate the key site of PP4C methylation and establish the physiological importance of this regulation.  相似文献
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