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1.
桃蛀果蛾Carposina sasakii及其寄生蜂滞育后发育研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
室内条件下,研究了不同寄主植物卜桃蛀果蛾Carposina sasakii Matsumura寄牛蜂种类、寄生率以及温度对苹果桃蛀果蛾及其寄生蜂章氏小甲腹茧蜂Chelonus(Microchelonus)zhangi滞育后发育的影响.结果表明,章氏小甲腹茧蜂寄生于苹果、枣、酸枣和山楂上的桃蛀果蛾;中国齿腿姬蜂Pristomerus chinensis Ashmead寄生于枣、酸枣和山楂上的桃蛀果蛾;杏寄主卜未发现寄生蜂.不同寄主植物上的寄生率差异显著,其中章氏小甲腹茧蜂在苹果桃蛀果蛾的寄生率最高,为16.45%,住山楂桃蛀果蛾的寄牛率最低,为1.58%;中国齿腿姬蜂在酸枣桃蛀果蛾的寄生率最高,为5.05%,在山楂桃蛀果蛾寄牛率最低,为1.09%.苹果桃蛀果蛾及章氏小甲腹茧蜂越冬幼虫开始发育至成虫羽化阶段的发育起点温度分别为7.27℃和10.96℃,有效积温分别为208.86DD和166.73DD.  相似文献   

2.
白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂的羽化和产卵与寄主之间的关系   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
白蜡窄吉丁是危害白蜡属树木的一种重要蛀干害虫,因其幼虫期高度的隐蔽性生活而极难检测和防治.白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂是新发现外寄生于白蜡窄吉丁幼虫的优势天敌种,对寄主害虫的控制作用较强,具有良好的生物防治利用前景.研究调查了白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂及其寄主白蜡窄吉丁越冬代成虫羽化的时序差异、不同时期林间的寄生率、寄主密度与寄生率的关系以及寄主幼虫大小与茧蜂产卵量的关系.结果表明,越冬后白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂的羽化时间比其寄主害虫白蜡窄吉丁的羽化要晚1个多月.2003年白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂越冬代成虫的羽化从6月中旬持续到8月中旬,羽化高峰期在7月份;寄主白蜡窄吉丁的羽化期在5月中下旬.2004年白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂越冬代成虫的羽化从5月下旬持续到7月下旬,羽化高峰期在6月下旬至7月上旬;寄主羽化期在4月中旬至5月中旬(室内).越冬后天敌的羽化时间刚好适应最早寄主发育到可供寄生的龄期,这是二者长期协同进化的结果,也表明白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂很可能是一种专性寄生蜂.林间白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂对白蜡窄吉丁幼虫的自然寄生率随着时间的推移总体上是逐步上升的.自然条件下茧蜂决定是否产卵与寄主幼虫的大小即龄期有关,它仅在前胸宽和体宽1.5 mm、体长12 mm以上,即3~4龄的寄主幼虫体表产卵,但只要接受寄主并产卵,不同龄期寄主幼虫上的产卵量无显著的差异.  相似文献   

3.
本文报道了江苏扬州地区水稻二化螟Chilo suppressalis(Walker)寄生蜂主要有10种,即中华钝唇姬蜂Eriborus sinicus(Holmgren)、二化螟盘绒茧蜂Cotesia chilonis(Munakata)、稻螟小腹茧蜂Microgaster russata Haliday、螟甲腹茧蜂Chelonus munakatae Munakata、中华茧蜂Amyosoma chinensis(Szepligeti)、螟黄足盘绒茧蜂Cotesia flavipes(Cameron)、夹色姬蜂Auberteterus alternecoloratus(Cushman)、桑蟥聚瘤姬蜂Iseropus(Gregopimpla)kuwanae(Viereck)、螟蛉瘤姬蜂Itoplectis naranyae(Ashmead)以及二化螟盘绒茧蜂的重寄生蜂绒茧灿金小蜂Trichomalopsis apanteloctena(Crawford)。田间系统调查表明:扬州地区7-9月水稻二化螟寄生蜂的主要种类为二化螟盘绒茧蜂、中华钝唇姬蜂、螟甲腹茧蜂、稻螟小腹茧蜂、螟蛉瘤姬蜂、桑蟥聚瘤姬蜂,但这些寄生蜂对一代水稻二化螟幼虫的寄生率较低,对二代水稻二化螟幼虫的寄生率高。水稻二化螟越冬期的系统调查表明:扬州地区二化螟越冬幼虫的寄生蜂主要有3种,即二化螟盘绒茧蜂、中华钝唇姬蜂和稻螟小腹茧蜂,其中二化螟盘绒茧蜂和中华钝唇姬蜂是寄生水稻二化螟越冬幼虫的优势种。水稻二化螟越冬幼虫的寄生率调查表明,扬州地区水稻二化螟越冬幼虫的寄生率在不同年份间有一定的波动,但一般都在15%以上,有的甚至高达89.88%,因此寄生蜂对二化螟越冬幼虫具有很好的控制作用,能有效压低来年水稻二化螟的田间越冬基数。此外,3种寄生蜂出茧时间在1月和2月之间达到最长,分别达到19.79 d、17.26 d和27.00 d,该结果表明,在扬州地区这3种寄生蜂可能都存在滞育现象。  相似文献   

4.
本文报道浙江部分地区二化螟Chilo suppressalis越冬幼虫寄生蜂的主要种类、寄生率以及它们在冬前与冬后的羽化动态.在兰溪,寄生蜂对二化螟越冬幼虫的寄生率较低,常见种类仅有二化螟绒茧蜂.在安吉与嘉兴两地,除二化螟绒茧蜂为主外,稻螟小腹茧蜂和中华钝唇姬蜂也较为常见,三者对双季晚稻田二化螟越冬幼虫寄生率为18~19%.明显高于单季晚稻田的寄生率(8~15%).3种寄生蜂的羽化动态有较大差异,二化螟绒茧蜂和稻螟小腹茧蜂在进入11月后即不再羽化,而中华钝唇姬蜂的羽化则持续到11月中旬之后;越冬后,后者的羽化时间明显早于前两者.  相似文献   

5.
1.据1954年考查,东安马尾松毛虫的天敌很多,尤其是寄生天敌,它是限制或抑制松毛虫大发生的决定性因素。 2.卵期的寄生天敌有:松毛虫黑卵蜂,赤眼蜂,平腹小蜂,白角小蜂,名和小蜂及金小蜂等六种,其中以前三种较为重要。 3.第一代松毛虫的卵寄生率为12.76%,其中黑卵峰的寄生率达5.83%,第二代松毛虫的卵寄生率为40.61%,其中黑卵蜂的寄生率达33.45%。 4.松毛虫各种卵蜂羽化时期及数量的观察,使我们初步了解卵蜂的一些生物学特性,对于今后饲放卵寄生蜂防治松毛虫的措施提供了重要依据。 5.幼虫期的寄生天敌有:两色瘦姬蜂,黑胸姬蜂,红头小茧蜂,黄甲腹小茧蜂,毒蛾绒茧蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以白僵病菌及寄生蝇类较为重要。 6.三次幼虫期寄生天敌的考查可以看出:越冬代老熟幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达56.62%,第一代幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达82.83%,第二代幼龄幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达40.83%,幼虫期的死亡率(主要是寄生率)相当高。 7.蛹期的寄生天敌有:日本黑点姬蜂,大腿蜂,花胸姬蜂,黑瘤姬蜂,松毛虫瘤姬蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以日本黑点姬蜂、寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等较为重要,但需指出,可能是因为病菌寄生的原因,未羽化蛹的比例很大,如在越冬代占36.68%,第一代占40.11%,这是值得今后深  相似文献   

6.
1956-1958年间, 作者在南京考查菜粉蝶天敌, 发现重要种类有:黄金小蜂(Pteromalus puparum(L.))、广大腿蜂(Brachymeria euploeae Westwood)、菜粉蝶黑疣姬蜂(Pimla sp.)和黄绒茧蜂(Apantelesglomeratus(L.))等数种。幼虫期寄生蜂的寄生率平均为3.3%, 蛹期为53.86%。黄金小蜂为蛹寄生蜂, 一年发生11-12代(室内), 以幼虫或蛹在寄主蛹壳内越冬, 寄生率平均为50.52%, 高者可达80%以上;雌峰率为65.12%;羽化率为93.17%。广大腿蜂寄生率平均为3.34%, 蛹寄生, 雌蜂率为58.43%。菜粉蝶黑疣姬蜂在国内寄生于菜粉蝶, 尚属初次报导。单寄生于越冬寄主蛹内, 寄生率为1.91%。黄绒茧峰只在一头菜粉蝶幼虫中发现, 寄生率为3.3%。黄金小蜂为菜粉蝶生物防治较合理想的一种寄生蜂, 但不能终年抑制菜粉蝶的猖獗。作者建议:(1)增加早春黄金小蜂的虫口数量;(2)解决8月间寄主数量的不足, 从而使黄金小蜂充分发挥其寄生能力, 达到菜粉蝶生物防治的目的。  相似文献   

7.
邱式邦 《昆虫学报》1955,(2):181-190
1936—37年在南京地区观察松毛虫寄生天敌所得的初步结果可简述如下: (一)南京地区业经发现的松毛虫天敌有卵寄生蜂3种:赤眼卵蜂、松毛虫长腹卵蜂、平腹小蜂;幼虫寄生蜂4种:松毛虫瘦姬蜂、松与虫红头小茧蜂、花胸姬蜂、黑基瘤姬蜂;幼虫寄生蝇3种:家蚕寄生蝇、大寄生蝇、小寄生蝇;蛹寄生蜂4种;日本黑点姬蜂、黑瘤姬蜂、大腿蜂、费氏大腿蜂;另重寄生8种。 (二)卵寄生蜂在防治松毛虫上起了适当大的作用,有时减低寄主虫口达61.24%。3种寄生蜂中以松与虫长腹卵蜂及平腹小峰为较重要。 (三)松毛虫初龄幼虫寄生率最高时可达26%。寄生率的高低及各种天敌的比较重要性与采集寄主材料的时期有密切的关系,往往数日之差,寄生率可截然不同。 (四)松与虫的后龄幼虫遭3种寄生蝇的寄生。寄生率最高可达42%。 (五)松毛虫茧期的寄生率可达38.4%,天敌中以大寄生蝇及日本黑点姬蜂为 最主要。 (六)无论在卵期、幼虫期或蛹期,第2化松毛虫的寄生率均比第1化的为高。此点似说明越冬问题是松毛虫天敌繁殖中的一个关系问题。 (七)几种比较重要的寄生天敌的发生时期和生活习性,本文中根据观察所及,加以记载。 (八)本文中将几个影响松毛虫寄生天敌虫口的因子提出讨论,这些因子包括;重寄生的严重、天敌发生时期与寄主生活史的不相  相似文献   

8.
调查水稻螟虫幼虫的寄生蜂,通常把剥查枯心或白穗所见的寄生蜂茧养起来,或把寄主饲养等待寄生蜂羽化,然后鉴定种类。但这样做是会碰到困难的。例如,茧中羽化的成虫已经跑掉,或的寄生幼虫、寄生蜂幼虫养不活,得不到成虫,那就无法鉴定,也无法统计寄生率。因此,生产实践要求能够根据幼虫鉴定种。为了避免上述困难和缺点,我们根据几种寄生蜂幼虫研究的结果,姬蜂幼虫较易识别,如图1—3,但茧峰之间区别较难。例如,中华茧蜂 Bracon chinensis螟黑纹茧蜂 Bracon onukii和三化螟茧蜂Tropobracon schoe-nobii,幼虫的头骨和口器甚相似(如图4),不过它们的茧却容易区分。  相似文献   

9.
茶尺蠖幼虫期的寄生天敌   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua hypulina Wehrli是我国茶树的主要害虫之一。本文系1973—75年对其幼虫期寄生天敌(寄生蜂、寄蝇及线虫)的研究结果。 从田间采集的各龄茶尺蠖幼虫中共养出五种原寄生天敌,即:二种绒茧蜂(茶尺蠖绒茧蜂和单白绵绒茧蜂Apanteles spp.),一种悬茧姬蜂(尺蠖悬茧姬蜂Charops sp.),一种寄蝇(平庸赘寄蝇Drino inconspicua Meigen)以及一种线虫(索虫),均单寄生、内寄生。1973—74年在浙江余杭寄生蜂占天敌总数的99.06%,而茶尺蠖绒茧蜂又占寄生蜂总数的95.93%。2—3龄茶尺蠖幼虫的平均总寄生率显著高于4—5龄幼虫:4—6月间通常显著高于8—9月。在4—6月间,2—3龄幼虫的最高总寄生率可超过96%,平均也达66.52%。 茶尺蠖绒茧蜂一年发生11—12代,主要以预蛹在茶树上的茧内越冬。在平均24.1—26.0℃的室温下,接蜂至于蜂开始羽化平均需要13.5—14.9天。性比一般为53—67%。成虫寿命通常1—3天。每头雌蜂平均寄生茶几蠖幼虫11.53头。喂以蜂蜜水,雌蜂寿命增长4.65—6.93倍,雄蜂增长3.72—5.17倍;寄生能力平均可以提高一倍以上。能行孤雌生殖,其后代均为雄性。一般寄生于1—3龄的茶尺蠖幼虫体内,老熟幼虫啮出时,奇主即告死亡。 由于茶尺蠖绒茧蜂是优势种,自然寄生率高,基本上消灭茶尺蠖幼虫于三龄,最有应用前途。本文对其优缺点,以及在生物防治中的应用方法进行了讨论。  相似文献   

10.
六盘山翠金小蜂Tritneptis sp.是华北落叶松人工林主要食叶害虫落叶松红腹叶蜂Pristiphora erichsonii Hartig茧期的体外复寄生性天敌。对该蜂的生物学特性研究表明,该蜂在宁夏六盘山1年2代,以幼虫在寄主茧内越冬,翌年4月中旬开始活动取食,5月中旬开始化蛹,成蜂从6月中旬开始羽化,每头虫茧平均出蜂6.14头,雌雄比1.79∶1,雌蜂6月下旬开始产卵,一只雌蜂一生可在12.2头寄主虫茧上产卵,第1代寄生蜂幼虫7月上旬开始孵化并吸食寄主营养发育,7月下旬开始化蛹,8月上旬开始羽化并交尾、产卵寄生。该蜂体型较大,对寄主跟随性强,无重寄生天敌,自然寄生率7.3%~33.6%,是一种优良天敌寄生蜂。  相似文献   

11.
This study reports a model that utilizes pheromone trap catches to assess the fruit damage caused by Carposina sasakii. The model consisted of four steps: (1) obtaining influx population density using pheromone traps, (2) estimating the actual female population within a defined area using an estimated conversion rate, (3) calculating the total number of eggs using the oviposition model of C. sasakii, and (4) estimating the proportion of fruits infested with eggs (potential damaged fruits) using the relationship between mean egg density per fruit and the proportion of fruits infested with eggs. The relationship between mean egg density ([`(x)] \bar{x} ) per fruit and variance (s 2) was well described by Taylor’s power law, and its parameters were successfully incorporated into the equation that estimates the relationship between mean egg density and the proportion of fruits infested with eggs. In peach orchards, the model accurately predicted the proportion of fruits infested with eggs at the beginning of C. sasakii emergence in early season, but overestimated it in the mid-season. The fitting ability of the model outputs largely increased when the factor of oviposition behavior of C. sasakii was incorporated into the simulation processes, applying the allocation module of total eggs between peaches and apples.  相似文献   

12.
桃蛀果蛾寄主生物型分化的RAPD分析   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
徐庆刚  花保祯 《昆虫学报》2004,47(3):379-383
以山茱萸蛀果蛾Carposina coreana Kim为外群,用44个随机引物对苹果、山楂、桃、杏、枣和酸枣等6种寄主植物上的桃蛀果蛾Carposina sasakii Matsumura进行了RAPD 分析。结果表明,不同寄主上的桃蛀果蛾之间遗传差异出现了较大的分化,桃蛀果蛾6个寄主生物型之间的平均遗传距离在0.040~0.637之间,尤其是杏生物型分化最大。经聚类分析,可将不同寄主上的桃蛀果蛾明显分成两个类群,杏生物型为一群,其余为一群。两个类群间遗传距离为0.465,亚群内部的遗传距离为0.040~0.369。推测杏树上的“桃蛀果蛾 ”已经分化成为不同的物种。  相似文献   

13.
14.
不同寄主植物对桃小食心虫生长发育和繁殖的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
为探索寄主植物对桃小食心虫Carposina sasakii生长发育和繁殖的影响, 在室内温度23±1℃, 相对湿度80%±7%, 光周期15L∶9D条件下, 测定了桃小食心虫在杏Armeniaca vulgaris、 李Prunus salicina、 桃Amygdalus persica、 枣Ziziphus jujuba、 苹果Malus pumila和梨Pyrus sorotina上各发育阶段的历期、 存活率和/或产卵量, 并组建了桃小食心虫在各寄主植物上的生命表。结果表明: 桃小食心虫的生长发育和繁殖在不同寄主植物间存在显著差异。幼虫的发育历期以李为最短(12.48 d), 梨为最长(19.15 d); 整个幼虫期的存活率以李为最高(50.54%), 梨为最低(17.91%); 单雌平均产卵量以枣(214.50粒/雌)和桃(197.94粒/雌)最高。生命表分析结果表明, 净生殖率R0以枣(117.49)为最大, 平均世代周期T则以梨(41.31 d)和苹果(41.51 d)最长, 内禀增长率rm以李(0.1294)为最高, 其次为枣(0.1201)和杏(0.1128)。这些结果有助于深入了解该虫在不同寄主植物上的种群动态。  相似文献   

15.
A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity and increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To enhance parasitism of the tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), alternate food was provided by interplanting peaches bearing extrafloral nectaries into apple (Malus spp.) orchards. Laboratory studies showed that the presence of nectar increased longevity and parasitism rates by Goniozus floridanus (Bethylidae), the dominant parasitoid of tufted apple bud moth in West Virginia. In orchard studies, we found the total number of hymenopteran parasitoids was higher on peach (Prunus spp.) trees than on adjacent apple trees. Abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera also was significantly higher on the side of traps facing away from rather than toward peach trees, indicating attraction to peach trees. However, total parasitism rates of tufted apple bud moth were not affected by the presence of peach extrafloral nectar in any field studies. Insect injury to fruit at harvest showed that fruit from orchards with interplanted peach trees had less injury from San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) and stink bugs (Pentatomidae) than fruit from an apple monoculture. Although interplanting with peach trees did not produce the hypothesized result of increased biological control, the experiment did have beneficial results for pest management. These results demonstrate the importance of collecting data on variables beyond the targeted species when evaluating habitat manipulation experiments to fully assess the impact on the ecosystem.  相似文献   

16.
Criconemella xenoplax and C. curvata, previously associated with decline of peach trees in other parts of the United States, were found in 20 of 25 Pennsylvania peach orchards. Population densities were high in some samples. Morphometrics of juveniles and adult females of Criconemella curvata and C. ornata, are provided. Cuticular crenations were observed on J2 and J3 stages of C. curvata and J2-J4 stages of C. ornata.  相似文献   

17.
Experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of organic matter to soil increased numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and parasitic activity of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. In a peach orchard on loamy sand, parasitism of the plant-parasitic nematode Criconemella xenoplax by H. rhossiliensis was slightly suppressed and numbers of C. xenoplax were not affected by addition of 73 metric tons of composted chicken manure/ha. In the laboratory, numbers of bacterivorous nematodes (especially Acrobeloides spp.) and fungivorous nematodes increased but parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis usually decreased with addition of wheat straw or composted cow manure to a loamy sand naturally infested with H. rhossiliensis. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic amendments will enhance parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis.  相似文献   

18.
Y. F. Zhong    Y. W. Zhang    X. Y. Chen    Y. Luo    L.Y. Guo 《Journal of Phytopathology》2008,156(4):229-235
Survival of Monilinia fructicola on the surface of mummified fruit and in peduncles and shoots of stone fruit trees infected by M. fructicola in the previous season was studied from 2003 to 2006 in orchards in the agricultural region of Beijing. Viable conidia of M. fructicola were consistently detected on fruit mummies from mid‐March to the end of April. During flowering (in mid‐April), studies in five peach orchards showed that 33–87% of mummified fruit bore viable conidia. The germination rate of conidia on diseased fruit was about 64% in autumn. It decreased to 24% in mid‐winter when the fruit was completely mummified, and in the following year to 2–4% in early spring. Viable M. fructicola was consistently detected in peach and nectarine shoots collected in winter and spring. In general, viable M. fructicola in peduncles was detected from mummified fruit of 11–27% branches and from asymptomatic plant tissues of 3–20% branches. Sporulation of M. fructicola was observed on peduncles in seven of eight surveys, and the percentage of branches containing viable M. fructicola in peduncles in contact with mummified fruits ranged from 18% to 40%. This study demonstrates that the tree‐borne mummified fruit and the peduncles could be the parts of trees where M. fructicola can survive the winter in orchards in suburban Beijing.  相似文献   

19.
红枣贮藏期果面微生物多样性   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
沙月霞 《生态学报》2011,31(2):483-490
以2种成熟度不同的红枣(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)为试验材料在入库前采用保鲜剂处理,未采用保鲜剂处理的红枣为试验对照,研究红枣不同贮藏时期果面微生物多样性。结果表明:红枣贮藏期果面微生物种群中,细菌是优势类群,占微生物总数80%以上,真菌较少;采摘期红枣果面上就携带微生物,真菌优势菌株属于链格孢(Alternaria),其次为镰刀菌(Fusarium)和木霉(Trichoderma),贮藏期优势菌株属于链格孢(Alternaria)、青霉(Penicillium)、木霉(Trichoderma)和镰刀菌(Fusarium),曲霉(Aspergillus)、毛霉(Mucor)和根霉(Rhizopus)次之。红枣贮藏期果面微生物种群动态失衡是导致贮藏病害发生的主要原因,成熟度较高的红枣果面微生物总数、真菌和细菌的数量明显高于成熟度较低的红枣,使用保鲜剂后有效地降低了红枣贮藏期果面微生物的多样性,贮藏时间越长红枣果面微生物的多样性越明显。  相似文献   

20.
The results of investigations onTyphlodromus italicus Chant in some peach orchards in the Verona district, where the predator is wide-spread, are described. Both field and laboratory studies have shown thatT. italicus grows rapidly (egg to adult 6 days at 25°C.) and has a long reproductive period, especially when prey is available. It speedily recovers in number and has a high prey-searching capacity. It is fast-moving, and its distribution over the tree corresponds to that of the phytophagous mites. It can live and reproduce on the tree in the absence of prey. A density of 50–60T. italicus/100 leaves is reached in August. FemaleT. italicus are found on leaves till November feeding whenever prey is available, and wintering in a mated condition in bark crevices. Many enter diapause in late autumn. Overwinter mortality is high. These characteristics enableT. italicus to play a very significant role in the control of peach mites and in orchards, which are unsprayed, it keeps their populations at a low density from spring to autumn.  相似文献   

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