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1.
Aim The Chilean endemic Dioscorea biloba (Dioscoreaceae) is a dioecious geophyte that shows a remarkable 600 km north–south disjunction in the peripheral arid area of the Atacama Desert. Its restricted present‐day distribution and probable Neogene origin indicate that its populations have a history linked to that of the Atacama Desert, making this an ideal model species with which to investigate the biogeography of the region. Location Chile, Atacama Desert and peripheral arid area. Methods Two hundred and seventy‐five individuals from nine populations were genotyped for seven nuclear microsatellite loci, and plastid trnL–F and trnT–L sequences were obtained for a representative subset of these. Analyses included the estimation of genetic diversity and population structure through clustering, Bayesian and analysis of molecular variance analyses, and statistical parsimony networks of chloroplast haplotypes. Isolation by distance was tested against alternative dispersal hypotheses. Results Microsatellite markers revealed moderate to high levels of genetic diversity within populations, with those from the southern Limarí Valley showing the highest values and northern populations showing less exclusive alleles. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data identified three genetic groups that corresponded to geographical ranges. Chloroplast phylogeography revealed no haplotypes shared between northern and southern ranges, and little haplotype sharing between the two neighbouring southern valleys. Dispersal models suggested the presence of extinct hypothetical populations between the southern and northern ranges. Main conclusions Our results are consistent with prolonged isolation of the northern and southern groups, mediated by the life‐history traits of the species. Significant isolation was revealed at both large and moderate distances as gene flow was not evident even between neighbouring valleys. Bayesian analyses of microsatellite and chloroplast haplotype diversity identified the southern area of Limarí as the probable area of origin of the species. Our data do not support recent dispersal of D. biloba from the southern range into Antofagasta, but indicate the fragmentation of an earlier wider range, concomitant with the Pliocene–Pleistocene climatic oscillations, with subsequent extinctions of the Atacama Desert populations and the divergence of the peripheral ones as a consequence of genetic drift.  相似文献   
2.
Abstract. Nutrient conservation in vegetation affects rates of litter decomposition and soil nutrient availability. Although resorption has been traditionally considered one of the most important plant strategies to conserve nutrients in temperate forests, long leaf life‐span and low nutrient requirements have been postulated as better indicators. We aimed at identifying nutrient conservation strategies within characteristic functional groups of NW Patagonian forests on Andisols. We analysed C‐, N‐, P‐, K‐ and lignin‐concentrations in mature and senescent leaves of ten native woody species within the functional groups: broad‐leaved deciduous species, broad‐leaved evergreens and conifers. We also examined mycorrhizal associations in all species. Nutrient concentration in mature leaves and N‐ resorption were higher in broad‐leaved deciduous species than in the other two functional groups. Conifers had low mature leaf nutrient concentrations, low N‐resorption and high lignin/N ratios in senescent leaves. P‐ and K‐resorptions did not differ among functional groups. Broad‐leaved evergreens exhibited a species‐dependent response. Nitrogen in mature leaves was positively correlated with both N resorption and soil N‐fertility. Despite the high P‐retention capacity of Andisols, N appeared to be the more limiting nutrient, with most species being proficient in resorbing N but not P. The presence of endomycorrhizae in all conifers and the broad‐leaved evergreen Maytenus boaria, ectomycorrhizae in all Nothofagus species (four deciduous, one evergreen), and cluster roots in the broad‐leaved evergreen Lomatia hirsuta, would be possibly explaining why P is less limiting than N in these forests.  相似文献   
3.
In a recent publication the isolation and some characteristics of an anti-histone 3 monoclonal antibody, 1GB3 were described (Muller et al. FEBS Lett. 182: 459–464, 1985). We now report that the epitope recognized is phylogenetically conserved and located in the N-terminal part of H3, most likely between residues 40 and 50. Using the ELISA technique we found this region to be accessible in chromatin to the monoclonal antibody. The effect of non-ionic detergents on the adsorbtion of chromatin on microtiter plates was studied in this context.Immunological analysis of the reaction of the monoclonal antibody with chromatin by immunoinhibition and immunosedimentation shows that the H3 epitope is accessible in both folded and unfolded chromatin fibre as well as in high- and low-molecular weight oligonucleosomes.Abbreviations BSA Bovine srum albumin - mab Monoclonal antibody - PBS Phosphate buffered saline - PMSF Phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride  相似文献   
4.
Binding of the cationic tetra(tributylammoniomethyl)-substituted hydroxoaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcN4) to bilayer lipid membranes was studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and intramembrane field compensation (IFC) methods. With neutral phosphatidylcholine membranes, AlPcN4 appeared to bind more effectively than the negatively charged tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4), which was attributed to the enhancement of the coordination interaction of aluminum with the phosphate moiety of phosphatidylcholine by the electric field created by positively charged groups of AlPcN4. The inhibitory effect of fluoride ions on the membrane binding of both AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 supported the essential role of aluminum-phosphate coordination in the interaction of these phthalocyanines with phospholipids. The presence of negative or positive charges on the surface of lipid membranes modulated the binding of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 in accord with the character (attraction or repulsion) of the electrostatic interaction, thus showing the significant contribution of the latter to the phthalocyanine adsorption on lipid bilayers. The data on the photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 and AlPcS4 as measured by sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes correlated well with the binding data obtained by FCS and IFC techniques. The reduced photodynamic activity of AlPcN4 with neutral membranes violating this correlation was attributed to the concentration quenching of singlet excited states as proved by the data on the AlPcN4 fluorescence quenching.  相似文献   
5.
The ability to metabolically label proteins with 35S-methionine is critical for the analysis of protein synthesis and turnover. Despite the importance of this approach, however, efficient labeling of proteins in vivo is often limited by a low number of available methionine residues, or by deleterious side-effects associated with protein overexpression. To overcome these limitations, we have created a methionine-rich variant of the widely used HA tag, called HAM, for use with ectopically expressed proteins. Here we describe the development of a series of vectors, and corresponding antisera, for the expression and detection of HAM-tagged proteins in mammalian cells. We show that the HAM tag dramatically improves the sensitivity of 35S-methionine labeling, and permits the analysis of Myc oncoprotein turnover even when HAM-tagged Myc is expressed at levels comparable to that of the endogenous protein. Because of the improved sensitivity provided by the HAM tag, the vectors and antisera described here should be useful for the analysis of protein synthesis and destruction at physiological levels of protein expression.  相似文献   
6.
 This paper deals with the use of cladistic methods and cladograms in phylogeny reconstruction in plant groups containing numerous taxa. How accurate are the cladograms as to details? Accuracy tests at the level of details require an independently known phylogeny, which excludes most plant groups, but such tests can be carried out in domesticated and experimental plant groups which have documented pedigrees. Four such tests are known and are presented here: a new case in Gilia and three previously published cases in Avena, Hordeum, and Helianthus. The four cases include domesticated and experimental plants, use of morphological and molecular evidence, and presence of dichotomous as well as reticulate phylogenies. The cladograms of the four plant groups all differ in significant details from the known pedigrees. These results are discussed in relation to problems of interpretation of cladograms. Received March 21, 2000 Accepted August 16, 2001  相似文献   
7.
8.
The linkage of the Phi, Pgd, Po2, S, H and halothane sensitivity loci was followed in a Belgian Landrace family, heterozygous for these systems over 6 generations. Recombination next to the S locus occurred mainly in pigs belonging to this particular family. From this investigation the position of the S locus is proved to be outwith the Phi-Pgd region, next to Phi . Therefore the gene sequence S - Phi - Hal -H- Po2 -Pgd is proposed. Higher recombination rates were observed in the female parental line of the multiheterozygous family when compared to the male parental line. Additional data from animals, unrelated to this strain, confirm the evidence of close linkage of the S system to the nearest marker loci.  相似文献   
9.
Abstract

Brassica rupestris Raf. is a chasmophyte species that includes two subspecies, both endemic to Central-Western Sicily (Italy). Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers were used to detect genetic diversity within and among eight populations representative of the species' distribution range. High levels of genetic diversity were revealed both at the population (PPB = 53.88%, H S = 0.212, Sh = 0.309) and at the species level (PPB = 96.55%, H T = 0.307, Sh = 0.464). The correlation between genetic and geographical distances was negative (Mantel test, r = ?0.06, P < 0.95). The two subspecies of B. rupestris, subsp. rupestris and subsp. hispida, showed remarkable genetic similarity and molecular data did not unequivocally support their distinctness. The pattern of genetic variation revealed by our study bears important consequences for conservation management: It is desirable to preserve B. rupestris populations in situ with a “dynamic” strategy, while, ex situ conservation programmes might be improved to safeguard maximum genetic diversity.  相似文献   
10.
W D Davies  J Pittard  B E Davidson 《Gene》1985,33(3):323-331
Defective transducing phages carrying aroG, the structural gene for phenylalanine (phe)-inhibitable phospho-2-keto-heptonate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.15; previously known as 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase[phe]), have been isolated, and DNA from two of these phages has been used to construct a restriction map of the region from att lambda to aroG. A 7.6-kb PstI-HindIII fragment from one of these phages was cloned into pBR322 and shown to contain aroG. The location of aroG within the 7.6 kb was established by subcloning and Tn3 transpositional mutagenesis. A fragment carrying the aroG promoter and operator has been cloned into a high copy number promoter-cloning vector (pMC489), and the resulting aroGpo-LacZ' (alpha) fusion subcloned in a low copy number vector. Strains with this fusion on the low copy number vector exhibit negative regulation of beta-galactosidase expression by both phenylalanine and tryptophan and positive regulation by tyrosine in a tyrR+ background.  相似文献   
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