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1.
The human homologue of Drosophila Toll (hToll), also called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is a recently cloned receptor of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Interestingly, the TLR4 gene has been localized to the same region to which the Lps locus (endotoxin unresponsive gene locus) is mapped. To examine the role of TLR4 in LPS responsiveness, we have generated mice lacking TLR4. Macrophages and B cells from TLR4-deficient mice did not respond to LPS. All these manifestations were quite similar to those of LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice. Furthermore, C3H/HeJ mice have, in the cytoplasmic portion of TLR4, a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Overexpression of wild-type TLR4 but not the mutant TLR4 from C3H/HeJ mice activated NF-kappaB. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response.  相似文献
2.
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 was recently identified as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase which activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase pathways and is required for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis; however, the mechanism regulating ASK1 activity is unknown. Through genetic screening for ASK1-binding proteins, thioredoxin (Trx), a reduction/oxidation (redox)-regulatory protein thought to have anti-apoptotic effects, was identified as an interacting partner of ASK1. Trx associated with the N-terminal portion of ASK1 in vitro and in vivo. Expression of Trx inhibited ASK1 kinase activity and the subsequent ASK1-dependent apoptosis. Treatment of cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine also inhibited serum withdrawal-, TNF-alpha- and hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of ASK1 as well as apoptosis. The interaction between Trx and ASK1 was found to be highly dependent on the redox status of Trx. Moreover, inhibition of Trx resulted in activation of endogenous ASK1 activity, suggesting that Trx is a physiological inhibitor of ASK1. The evidence that Trx is a negative regulator of ASK1 suggests possible mechanisms for redox regulation of the apoptosis signal transduction pathway as well as the effects of antioxidants against cytokine- and stress-induced apoptosis.  相似文献
3.
Monocytes/macrophages exposed to LPS show reduced responses to second stimulation with LPS, which is termed LPS tolerance. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanism of LPS tolerance in macrophages. Mouse peritoneal macrophages pre-exposed to LPS exhibited reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Activation of neither IL-1 receptor-associated kinase nor NF-kappaB was observed in macrophages that became tolerant by LPS pretreatment, indicating that the proximal event in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-dependent signaling is affected in tolerant macrophages. Although TLR4 mRNA expression significantly decreased within a few hours of LPS pretreatment and returned to the original level at 24 h, the surface TLR4 expression began to decrease within 1 h, with a gradual decrease after that, and remained suppressed over 24 h. A decrease in inflammatory cytokine production in tolerant macrophages well correlates with down-regulation of the surface TLR4 expression, which may explain one of the mechanisms for LPS tolerance.  相似文献
4.
The human MD-2 molecule is associated with the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and greatly enhances its LPS signaling. The human TLR4-MD-2 complex thus signals the presence of LPS. Little is known, however, about cell surface expression and LPS signaling of the TLR4-MD-2 complex in vivo. We cloned mouse MD-2 molecularly and established a unique mAb MTS510, which reacted selectively with mouse TLR4-MD-2 but not with TLR4 alone in flow cytometry. Mouse MD-2 expression in TLR4-expressing cells enhanced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation, which was clearly inhibited by MTS510. Thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages expressed TLR4-MD-2, which was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of LPS. Moreover, LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by MTS510. Collectively, the TLR4-MD-2 complex is expressed on macrophages in vivo and senses and signals the presence of LPS.  相似文献
5.
The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is one of the tight barriers against gene transfer by synthetic delivery systems. Various agents have been used to facilitate gene transfer by destabilizing the endosomal membrane under acidic conditions, but their utility is limited, especially for gene transfer in vivo. In this article, we report that the protein transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein (Tat peptide) greatly facilitates gene transfer via membrane destabilization. We constructed recombinant lambda phage particles displaying Tat peptide on their surfaces and carrying mammalian marker genes as part of their genomes (Tat-phage). We demonstrate that, when animal cells are briefly exposed to Tat-phage, significant expression of phage marker genes is induced with no harmful effects to the cells. In contrast, recombinant phage displaying other functional peptides, such as the integrin-binding domain or a nuclear localization signal, could not induce detectable marker gene expression. The expression of marker genes induced by Tat-phage is not affected by endosomotropic agents but is partially impaired by inhibitors of caveolae formation. These data suggest that Tat peptide will become a useful component of synthetic delivery vehicles that promote gene transfer independently of the classical endocytic pathway.  相似文献
6.
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various tumor cells in vitro, but its physiological role in tumor surveillance remains unknown. Here, we report that TRAIL is constitutively expressed on murine natural killer (NK) cells in the liver and plays a substantial role in suppressing tumor metastasis. Freshly isolated NK cells, but not natural killer T cells or ordinary T cells, from the liver expressed cell surface TRAIL, which was responsible for spontaneous cytotoxicity against TRAIL-sensitive tumor cells in vitro along with perforin and Fas ligand (FasL). Administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody against TRAIL significantly increased experimental liver metastases of several TRAIL-sensitive tumor cell lines. Such an anti-metastatic effect of TRAIL was not observed in NK cell-depleted mice or interferon-gamma-deficient mice, the latter of which lacked TRAIL on liver NK cells. These findings provide the first evidence for the physiological function of TRAIL as a tumor suppressor.  相似文献
7.
ASK1 activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and constitutes a pivotal signaling pathway in cytokine- and stress-induced apoptosis. However, little is known about the mechanism of how ASK1 executes apoptosis. Here we investigated the roles of caspases and mitochondria in ASK1-induced apoptosis. We found that benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk), a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, mostly inhibited ASK1-induced cell death, suggesting that caspases are required for ASK1-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of ASK1DeltaN, a constitutively active mutant of ASK1, induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 but not of caspase-8-like proteases. Consistently, caspase-8-deficient (Casp8 (-/-)) cells were sensitive to ASK1-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-8 is dispensable for ASK1-induced apoptosis, whereas ASK1 failed to activate caspase-3 in caspase-9-dificient (Casp9 (-/-)) cells. Moreover, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which was not inhibited by zVAD-fmk, preceded the onset of caspase-3 activation and cell death induced by ASK1. ASK1 thus appears to execute apoptosis mainly by the mitochondria-dependent caspase activation.  相似文献
8.
A family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediates the cellular response to bacterial cell wall components; murine TLR2 and TLR4 recognize mycoplasmal lipopeptides (macrophage-activating lipopeptides, 2 kDa (MALP-2)) and LPS, respectively. Costimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with MALP-2 and LPS results in a marked increase in TNF-alpha production, showing the synergy between TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways. Macrophages pretreated with LPS show hyporesponsiveness to the second LPS stimulation, termed LPS tolerance. The LPS tolerance has recently been shown to be primarily due to the down-regulation of surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex. When macrophages were treated with MALP-2, the cells showed hyporesponsiveness to the second MALP-2 stimulation, like LPS tolerance. Furthermore, macrophages pretreated with MALP-2 showed reduced production of TNF-alpha in response to LPS. LPS-induced activation of both NF-kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase was severely impaired in MALP-2-pretreated cells. However, MALP-2-pretreated macrophages did not show any reduction in surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex. These findings indicate that LPS-induced LPS tolerance mainly occurs through the down-regulation of surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex; in contrast, MALP-2-induced LPS tolerance is due to modulation of the downstream cytoplasmic signaling pathways.  相似文献
9.
Childhood-onset asthma is frequently found in association with atopy. Although asthmatic children may develop IgE antibodies against variety of allergens, asthma is associated primarily with allergy to house-dust mites, molds, or other allergens. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide linkage search in 47 Japanese families (197 members) with more than two mite-sensitive atopic asthmatics (65 affected sib-pairs) using 398 markers. Multipoint linkage analysis was carried out for atopic asthma as a qualitative trait using the MAPMAKER/SIB program. We observed significant evidence for linkage with maximum lod scores (MLS) of 4.8 near the interleukin 12 B gene locus on chromosome 5q31-q33. In addition, suggestive evidence on 4q35 with MLS = 2.7 and on 13q11 with MLS = 2.4 was obtained. The other possible linkage regions included 6p22-p21.3 (MLS = 2.1), 12q21-q23 (MLS = 1.9), and 13q14.1-q14.3 (MLS = 2.0). Many of the linkage loci suggested in this study were at or close to those suggested by genome-wide studies for asthma in Caucasian populations. The present study suggests the contribution of the interleukin 12 B gene or nearby gene(s) to mite-sensitive atopic asthma and a considerable number of genetic variants common across Caucasians and Japanese populations contributing to asthma, although the relative importance of various variants may differ between the groups.  相似文献
10.
The biological effects of type I serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins were examined using an adenovirus-based vector system. Constitutively active forms of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB; BMPR-I group) and those of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-1 and ALK-2 (ALK-1 group) induced alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells. Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) that act in the BMP pathways, such as Smad1 and Smad5, also induced the alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells. BMP-6 dramatically enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity induced by Smad1 or Smad5, probably because of the nuclear translocation of R-Smads triggered by the ligand. Inhibitory Smads, i.e., Smad6 and Smad7, repressed the alkaline phosphatase activity induced by BMP-6 or the type I receptors. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells was induced by the receptors of the BMPR-I group but not by those of the ALK-1 group. However, kinase-inactive forms of the receptors of the ALK-1 and BMPR-I groups blocked chondrogenic differentiation. Although R-Smads failed to induce cartilage nodule formation, inhibitory Smads blocked it. Osteoblast differentiation induced by BMPs is thus mediated mainly via the Smad-signaling pathway, whereas chondrogenic differentiation may be transmitted by Smad-dependent and independent pathways.  相似文献
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