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排序方式: 共有8804条查询结果,搜索用时 62 毫秒
1.
Three types of alpha-complementation plasmid vectors were constructed which contain a chloramphenicol- or kanamycin-resistance (CmR or KmR) gene and polylinker cloning sites within the coding region of lacZ'. These vectors are essentially based on high- or low-copy-number replicons. The low-copy-number vectors, 3.61 kb in size, confer CmR and contain the pSC101 replicon and pUC8-/pUC9-type polylinker. On the other hand, the high-copy-number vectors, 2.21 to 2.68 kb in size, confer either CmR or KmR, and contain the pBR322 replicon and pUC18-/pUC19-type or other modified polylinkers. All cloning sites except HindIII and SmaI sites in the KmR vectors are unique in each plasmid. Since almost all frequently used plasmid vectors confer ampicillin resistance, these vectors may be useful to simplify the subcloning/DNA joining experiments due to unnecessity of radioisotope labelling, size fractionation and purification of foreign DNA segments.  相似文献
2.
We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.  相似文献
3.
Arai F  Hirao A  Ohmura M  Sato H  Matsuoka S  Takubo K  Ito K  Koh GY  Suda T 《Cell》2004,118(2):149-161
The quiescent state is thought to be an indispensable property for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Interaction of HSCs with their particular microenvironments, known as the stem cell niches, is critical for adult hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM). Here, we demonstrate that HSCs expressing the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 are quiescent and antiapoptotic, and comprise a side-population (SP) of HSCs, which adhere to osteoblasts (OBs) in the BM niche. The interaction of Tie2 with its ligand Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) induced cobblestone formation of HSCs in vitro and maintained in vivo long-term repopulating activity of HSCs. Furthermore, Ang-1 enhanced the ability of HSCs to become quiescent and induced adhesion to bone, resulting in protection of the HSC compartment from myelosuppressive stress. These data suggest that the Tie2/Ang-1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the maintenance of HSCs in a quiescent state in the BM niche.  相似文献
4.
Serum neutralizing antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus were frequently detected in infected individuals, and low or absent serum neutralizing titers correlated with poor prognosis. Multiple diverse human immunodeficiency virus isolates were found to exhibit similar susceptibility to neutralization by a panel of human seropositive sera, suggesting that neutralizing antibodies are largely directed against conserved viral domains. Furthermore, utilizing antisera raised against a library of synthetic env peptides, four regions which are important in the neutralization process have been identified within both human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (gp41 and gp120). Three of these are in conserved domains and should be considered for inclusion in a candidate vaccine.  相似文献
5.
When a confluent monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells is wounded with a razor blade, endothelial cells (ECs) spontaneously move into the denuded area. If bovine pericytes or smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are plated into the denuded area at low density, they block the movement of the ECs. This effect is dependent upon the number of cells plated into the wound area and contact between ECs and the plated cells. Antibodies to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) abrogate the inhibition of BAE cell movement by pericytes or SMCs. TGF-beta 1, if added to wounded BAE cell monolayers, also inhibits cell movement. When cultured separately, BAE cells, pericytes, and SMCs each produce an inactive TGF-beta 1-like molecule which is activated in BAE cell-pericyte or BAE cell-SMC co-cultures. The activation appears to be mediated by plasmin as the inhibitory effect on cell movement in co-cultures of BAE cells and pericytes is blocked by the inclusion of inhibitors of plasmin in the culture medium.  相似文献
6.
T Kitamura  N Sato  K Arai  A Miyajima 《Cell》1991,66(6):1165-1174
A cDNA for a human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) binding protein has been isolated by a novel expression cloning strategy: a cDNA library was coexpressed with the cDNA for the beta subunit of human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor (hGMR beta) in COS7 cells and screened by binding of 125I-labeled IL-3. The cloned cDNA (DUK-1) encodes a mature protein of 70 kd, which belongs to the cytokine receptor family and which alone binds hIL-3 with extremely low affinity (Kd = 120 +/- 60 nM). A high affinity IL-3-binding site (Kd = 140 +/- 30 pM) was reconstituted by coexpressing the DUK-1 protein and hGMR beta, indicating that hIL-3R and hGMR share the beta subunit. Therefore, we designated DUK-1 as the alpha subunit of the hIL-3R. As in human hematopoietic cells, hIL-3 and hGM-CSF complete for binding in fibroblasts expressing the cDNAs for hIL-3R alpha, GMR alpha, and the common beta subunit, indicating that different alpha subunits compete for a common beta subunit.  相似文献
7.
Synthesis and assembly of the membrane proteins in E. coli.   总被引:65,自引:0,他引:65  
K Ito  T Sato  T Yura 《Cell》1977,11(3):551-559
Kinetics of integration of membrane proteins were studied in E. coli to discover how membrane proteins find their final location in the functional membrane. The experiments make use of a simple and convenient method developed for isolating inner and outer membranes from a number of small-scale cultures with high recovery. Among the proteins that constitute the cell surface structures, inner membrane proteins are integrated most rapidly after synthesis, whereas outer membrane proteins delay somewhat, and periplasmic proteins delay further in reaching their destinations. Protein I, a major outer membrane protein with molecular weight of about 37,000 daltons, exhibits significantly slower rates of integration than other outer membrane proteins. The decreased fluidity of membrane lipids by temperature shiftdown of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph grown on elaidate results in abnormally slow assembly of the outer membrane proteins and also in an anomalous assembly of the inner membrane proteins, suggesting that the fluid state of the lipids is required for normal operation of these processes. The possible relevance of these findings to the mechanism of membrane formation is discussed.  相似文献
8.
We have found that the spontaneous migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells from the edge of a denuded area in a confluent monolayer is dependent upon the release of endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cell movement is blocked by purified polyclonal rabbit IgG to bFGF as well as affinity purified anti-bFGF IgG and anti-bFGF F(ab')2 fragments. The inhibitory effect of the immunoglobulins is dependent upon antibody concentration, is reversible, is overcome by the addition of recombinant bFGF, and is removed by affinity chromatography of the antiserum through a column of bFGF-Sepharose. Cell movement is also reversibly inhibited by the addition of protamine sulfate and suramin; two agents reported to block bFGF binding to its receptor. The addition of recombinant bFGF to wounded monolayers accelerates the movement of cells into the denuded area. Transforming growth factor beta which has been shown to antagonize several other effects of bFGF also inhibits cell movement. The anti-bFGF IgG prevents the movement of bovine capillary endothelial cells, BHK-21, NIH 3T3, and human skin fibroblasts into a denuded area. Antibodies to bFGF, as well as suramin and protamine sulfate also suppress the basal levels of plasminogen activator and DNA synthesis in bovine aortic endothelial cells.  相似文献
9.
Combinatorial receptor codes for odors   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
Malnic B  Hirono J  Sato T  Buck LB 《Cell》1999,96(5):713-723
The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  相似文献
10.
Novobiocin-supersensitive (NS) mutants which could not grow on plates containing 40 mug or less of novobiocin per ml were isolated from Escherichia coli strain JE1011 (derived from E. coli K-12). Most of these NS mutants were found to have incomplete lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and they lack phosphate diester bridges in their backbone structure, with or without total loss of heptose, to which the phosphate diester is linked, and consequently lack external outer-core oligosaccharides. The phosphate diester bridges in the LPS backbone are apparently very important in forming a cell surface structure resistant to the penetration of antibiotics such as novobiocin, spiramycin, and actinomycin D. NS mutants, with incomplete LPS, lacking phosphates in their backbone structure were found to be resistant to phage T4, and those which also lacked heptose were resistant to phages T4 and T7. In contrast to the generally accepted idea that resistances to phages T3, T4, and T7 are linked genetically, no NS mutant was found to be resistant to T3. The possible structures of the receptors for T4 and T7 are discussed. The positions of novobiocin-supersensitive genes on the chromosome of several of the NS mutants defective in LPS were mapped. The genes were designated lpcA (between ara and lac) and lpcB (between 55 min and 60 min). The latter seemed to be a group of several related genes.  相似文献
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