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1.
The human MD-2 molecule is associated with the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and greatly enhances its LPS signaling. The human TLR4-MD-2 complex thus signals the presence of LPS. Little is known, however, about cell surface expression and LPS signaling of the TLR4-MD-2 complex in vivo. We cloned mouse MD-2 molecularly and established a unique mAb MTS510, which reacted selectively with mouse TLR4-MD-2 but not with TLR4 alone in flow cytometry. Mouse MD-2 expression in TLR4-expressing cells enhanced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation, which was clearly inhibited by MTS510. Thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages expressed TLR4-MD-2, which was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of LPS. Moreover, LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by MTS510. Collectively, the TLR4-MD-2 complex is expressed on macrophages in vivo and senses and signals the presence of LPS.  相似文献
2.
BRCA1-BARD1 constitutes a heterodimeric RING finger complex associated through its N-terminal regions. Here we demonstrate that the BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimeric RING finger complex contains significant ubiquitin ligase activity that can be disrupted by a breast cancer-derived RING finger mutation in BRCA1. Whereas individually BRCA1 and BARD1 have very low ubiquitin ligase activities in vitro, BRCA1 combined with BARD1 exhibits dramatically higher activity. Bacterially purified RING finger domains comprising residues 1-304 of BRCA1 and residues 25-189 of BARD1 are capable of polymerizing ubiquitin. The steady-state level of transfected BRCA1 in vivo was increased by co-transfection of BARD1, and reciprocally that of transfected BARD1 was increased by BRCA1 in a dose-dependent manner. The breast cancer-derived BARD1-interaction-deficient mutant, BRCA1(C61G), does not exhibit ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. These results suggest that the BRCA1-BARD1 complex contains a ubiquitin ligase activity that is important in prevention of breast and ovarian cancer development.  相似文献
3.
The complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and associated MD-2 signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when it is expressed in cell lines. We here show that normal human mononuclear cells express TLR4 and signal LPS via TLR4. CD14 is a molecule that binds to LPS and facilitates its signaling. Little is known, however, about the relationship of CD14 with TLR4-MD-2. We show that CD14 helps TLR4-MD-2 to sense and signal the presence of LPS. CD14 has also been implicated in recognition of apoptotic cells, which leads to phagocytosis without activation. Membrane phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are thought to serve as the ligands for CD14 in apoptotic cells. We find that PtdIns acts as an LPS antagonist in the signaling via TLR4-MD-2. TLR4-MD-2 seems to discriminate LPS from phospholipids. The signaling via TLR4-MD-2 is thus regulated by CD14 and phospholipid such as PtdIns.  相似文献
4.
The availability of computerized knowledge on biochemical pathways in the KEGG database opens new opportunities for developing computational methods to characterize and understand higher level functions of complete genomes. Our approach is based on the concept of graphs; for example, the genome is a graph with genes as nodes and the pathway is another graph with gene products as nodes. We have developed a simple method for graph comparison to identify local similarities, termed correlated clusters, between two graphs, which allows gaps and mismatches of nodes and edges and is especially suitable for detecting biological features. The method was applied to a comparison of the complete genomes of 10 microorganisms and the KEGG metabolic pathways, which revealed, not surprisingly, a tendency for formation of correlated clusters called FRECs (functionally related enzyme clusters). However, this tendency varied considerably depending on the organism. The relative number of enzymes in FRECs was close to 50% for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but was <10% for Synechocystis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The FRECs collection is reorganized into a collection of ortholog group tables in KEGG, which represents conserved pathway motifs with the information about gene clusters in all the completely sequenced genomes.  相似文献
5.
The effects of substance P on cultured rabbit osteoclasts were investigated. The intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) which was monitored by the microfluorometric technique using fura-2, in osteoclasts elevated by the addition of substance P (0.3-5 microM). The EC(50) value of substance P was about 200 nM. This substance P-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) elevation was not observed in the Ca(2+)-free medium. Simultaneous application of spantide, a substance P receptor antagonist, blocked the Ca(2+) response. The addition of substance P (0.1-10 microM) to cultured osteoclasts enhanced their bone resorption activity which was evaluated by the pit formation assay. Maximum enhancement of the pit formation by substance P (5 microM) peaked at about 170% of the control level. The addition of substance P receptor antagonists also inhibited the enhancement of the bone resorption by substance P addition. Substance P possibly stimulates the bone remodeling by osteoclasts via the [Ca(2+)](i) elevation.  相似文献
6.
States of hemoglobin in solution   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
R T Ogata  H M McConnell 《Biochemistry》1972,11(25):4792-4799
7.
The present study investigates the role of thymic stroma-derived T cell growth factor (TSTGF) in promoting the growth of L3T4- Lyt2- (double-negative) thymocytes. Partially purified TSTGF samples were prepared from the culture supernatant of a newly established thymic stromal cell line, MRL104.8a. The TSTGF alone induced only marginal proliferation of double-negative thymocytes, whereas this factor exerted a potent growth-promoting effect on these cells in combination with PMA. Because such an enhanced proliferation was not inhibited by anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-2R antibody, this was not due to the stimulation of an autocrine mechanism involving the production and utilization of IL-4 or IL-2. In scrutinizing PMA-equivalent physiologic substance(s), IL-1 was revealed to be capable of replacing the role of PMA in the above co-stimulation cultures and including enhanced proliferation of double-negative thymocytes in combination with TSTGF. Although TSTGF plus IL-2 or IL-4 also exhibited an appreciable or moderate synergistic effect on the growth of double-negative thymocytes, its magnitude was weaker compared with that obtained by TSTGF plus IL-1. More important, the strikingly enhanced proliferation was induced in the combinations of TSTGF, IL-1, and IL-2 or IL-4 under conditions in which the proliferation induced by IL-1 plus IL-4 or IL-1 plus IL-2 was marginal or slight. Furthermore, such strongly enhanced proliferation was also observed in the double-negative thymocyte population which was additionally depleted of T3+ cells (namely, the L3T4- Lyt-2- T3- or dull population). These results indicate the crucial role of TSTGF in the proliferation of immature thymocytes by synergy with various cytokines.  相似文献
8.
Valinomycin and mitochondrial ion transport   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
9.
IL-2-PE40 is a chimeric molecule in which IL-2 is attached to the amino end of modified Pseudomonas exotoxin molecule lacking cell recognition domain. This molecule was extremely toxic for Con A-stimulated spleen cells from mice. Moreover, IL-2-PE40 has suppressive effect against Ag-activated cells; it inhibits the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in a MLC. IL-2-PE40 could be a useful agent in IL-2R targeting therapy including immunosuppressive therapy for allograft rejection or some autoimmune diseases.  相似文献
10.
A temperate phage of Streptomyces azureus   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
A new phage, SAt1, was isolated from soil on Streptomyces azureus ATCC 14921. This phage was able to lysogenize S. azureus. The percentage of lysogenic responses was ca. 10%. Electron microscopic observation showed that this phage belonged to group B of Bradley's morphological classification. The molecular mass of SAt1 DNA was ca. 24 megadaltons. The guanine-plus-cytosine content and the density of SAt1 DNA were ca. 71% and 1.724 g/cm3, respectively. A cleavage map of SAt1 DNA was constructed with restriction endonucleases BanIII, BglII, HindIII, and XbaI. Furthermore, some other characteristics of this phage were investigated.  相似文献
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