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1.
Death receptors (DRs) can induce apoptosis by oligomerization with TRAIL, whereas death decoy receptors (DcRs) cannot, due to their lack of functional intracellular death domains. However, it is not known whether DRs and DcRs can interact with one another to form oligomeric complexes prior to TRAIL binding. To address this issue, the extracellular domains (ECDs) of DR4 (sDR4), DR5 (sDR5), DcR1 (sDcR1), and DcR2 (sDcR2) were expressed in a soluble, monomeric form, and their binding interactions were quantified by surface plasmon resonance. The purified sDRs and sDcRs exhibited native-like secondary structure and bound to TRAIL with binding affinities in the nanomolar range (K(D)= approximately 10-62 nM), suggesting that they were properly folded and functional. The soluble receptors interacted homophilically and heterophilically with similar micromolar range affinities (K(D)= approximately 1-9 microM), with the exception that sDR5 did not interact with the sDcRs. Our results suggest that most DRs and DcRs can laterally interact through their ECDs to form homomeric and/or heteromeric complexes in the absence of TRAIL binding.  相似文献
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Although AIMP3/p18 is normally associated with the multi-tRNA synthetase complex via its specific interaction with methionyl-tRNA synthetase, it also works as a tumor suppressor by interacting with ATM, the upstream kinase of p53. To understand the molecular interactions of AIMP3 and the mechanisms involved, we determined the crystal structure of AIMP3 at 2.0-angstroms resolution and identified its potential sites of interaction with ATM. AIMP3 contains two distinct domains linked by a 7-amino acid (Lys57-Ser63) peptide, which contains a 3(10) helix. The 56-amino acid N-terminal domain consists of two helices into which three antiparallel beta strands are inserted, and the 111-amino acid C-terminal domain contains a bundle of five helices (Thr64-Tyr152) followed by a coiled region (Pro153-Leu169). Structural analyses revealed homologous proteins such as yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, Arc1p, EF1Bgamma, and glutathione S-transferase and suggested two potential molecular binding sites. Moreover, mutations at the C-terminal putative binding site abolished the interaction between AIMP3 and ATM and the ability of AIMP3 to activate p53. Thus, this work identified the two potential molecular interaction sites of AIMP3 and determined the residues critical for its tumor-suppressive activity through the interaction with ATM.  相似文献
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Factors affecting microbial aerobic biodegradation of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] were investigated using three alkane-degrading bacteria (Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, Pseudomonas oleovorans, and Pseudomonas butanovora) and one fluoroacetate-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8341). In the presence of formate (an external reducing energy source), P. fluorescens DSM 8341 produced perfluorobutanoic acid by removing three –CF2– groups from 6:2 FTOH. Only P. fluorescens DSM 8341 transformed 5:3 acid to 4:3 acid and perfluoropentanoic acid. However, formate showed no effects on the degradation rates, patterns, or transformation products of 6:2 FTOH by M. vaccae JOB5. When dicyclopropylketone (an alkane hydroxylase inducer) or formate was added, P. oleovorans rapidly degraded 6:2 FTOH and produced PFPeA. In the presence of lactate, P. butanovora degraded 6:2 FTOH slowly but produced diverse metabolites. Our results demonstrate that the extent and mechanisms of 6:2 FTOH biotransformation are affected by strain types, enzyme inducers, and levels of reducing energy.  相似文献
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We have isolated and characterized the immediate (1651 bp) 5′-flanking region of the gene (GnT-III) encoding N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) from a human placental genomic library. Analysis of promoter elements shows a similarity to the 5′-flanking region of murine 1,4-galactosyltransferase. The sequence lacks obvious TATA elements and CCAAT boxes; however, putative regulatory sites, including 2 potential cAMP-response regulatory elements (CRE), 11 insulin-response element consensus sequences (IRE), 7 potential AP-2-binding sites, 2 SP1 consensus sequences (GC boxes) and 2 sequences similar to the half-palindromic glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE), are present.  相似文献
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Lymphocytes from eight individuals out of 60 healthy donors, whose plasmas showed relatively higher antibody titer for a target antigen of death receptor 5 (DR5), were selected for the source of antibody genes to construct so called an anti-DR5 pseudo-immune human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) library on the yeast cell surface (approximately 2x10(6) diversity). Compared with a large nonimmune human scFv library (approximately 1x10(9) diversity), the repertoire of the pseudo-immune scFv library was significantly biased toward the target antigen, which facilitated rapid enrichments of the target-specific high affinity scFvs during selections by fluorescence activated cell sortings. Isolated scFvs, HW5 and HW6, from the pseudo-immune library showed much higher specificity and affinity for the targeted antigen than those from the nonimmune library. Our results suggest that a pseudo-immune antibody library is very efficient to isolate target-specific high affinity antibody from a relatively small sized library.  相似文献
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Despite evidence that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is closely associated with stress in gastric ulcer patients, the underlying mechanism why ulcer recurrence after stress is augmented especially in patients with H. pylori remains unknown. In this study, we found that oxidative stress played a critical role in the augmented mucosal damage provoked by water immersion restraint stress (WIRS) in H. pylori infection and that an antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol, could ameliorate the aggravation of stress-associated gastric mucosal damage. Two hundred forty SD rats were divided into two groups according to H. pylori inoculation, and after 24 weeks of H. pylori infection, the water immersion restraint stress was imposed for 30, 120, or 480 min, respectively. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of an antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol was administrated 40 mg/kg daily prior to imposing WIRS. Remarkably increased hemorrhagic lesions and bleeding indexes were noted in the H. pylori-infected group with statistical significance (P < 0.05) compared to the noninfected group at the same duration of WIRS. Significantly higher oxidative stress documented by iNOS, lipid peroxides, and GSH level was detected in gastric homogenates of the H. pylori-infected group. Proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional electrophoresis showed a decrease of HSP27 and other chaperone proteins. alpha-Tocopherol pretreatment significantly prevented the gastric mucosal damage, caused by WIRS in the presence of H. pylori. alpha-Tocopherol induced HSP27 expression, which was well correlated with downregulation of iNOS mRNA. Conclusively, the presence of H. pylori caused significant deterioration of stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions through increased oxidative stress and thus antioxidant treatment such as alpha-tocopherol protected the gastric injuries.  相似文献
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Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to grow on o-xylene, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. DK17 harbors at least two megaplasmids, and the genes encoding the initial steps in alkylbenzene metabolism are present on the 330-kb pDK2. The genes encoding alkylbenzene degradation were cloned in a cosmid clone and sequenced completely to reveal 35 open reading frames (ORFs). Among the ORFs, we identified two nearly exact copies (one base difference) of genes encoding large and small subunits of an iron sulfur protein terminal oxygenase that are 6 kb apart from each other. Immediately downstream of one copy of the dioxygenase genes (akbA1a and akbA2a) is a gene encoding a dioxygenase ferredoxin component (akbA3), and downstream of the other copy (akbA1b and akbA2b) are genes putatively encoding a meta-cleavage pathway. RT-PCR experiments show that the two copies of the dioxygenase genes are operonic with the downstream putative catabolic genes and that both operons are induced by o-xylene. When expressed in Escherichia coli, AkbA1a-AkbA2a-AkbA3 transformed o-xylene into 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylphenol. These were apparently derived from an unstable o-xylene cis-3,4-dihydrodiol, which readily dehydrates. This indicates a single point of attack of the dioxygenase on the aromatic ring. In contrast, attack of AkbA1a-AkbA2a-AkbA3 on ethylbenzene resulted in the formation of two different cis-dihydrodiols resulting from an oxidation at the 2,3 and the 3,4 positions on the aromatic ring, respectively.  相似文献
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To understand the expression pattern of theS RNase gene in the floral tissues associated with self-incompatibility (SI), promoter region of S11 RNase gene was serially deleted and fused GUS. Five chimeric constructs containing a deleted promoter region of the S11 RNase gene were constructed, and introduced intoNicotiana tabacum using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Northern blot analysis revealed that the GUS gene was expressed in the style, anther, and developing pollen of all stages in each transgenic tobacco plant The developing pollen expressed the same amount of GUS mRNA in all stages in transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, histochemical analysis showed GUS gene expression in vascular bundle, endothecium, stomium, and tapetum cells during pollen development in transgenic plants. From these results, it is speculated that SI ofLycopersicon peruvianum may occur through the interaction ofS RNase expressed in both style and pollen tissues.  相似文献
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