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1.
Picornavirus RNAs are uncapped messengers and have unusually long 5' nontranslated regions (5'NTRs) which contain many noninitiating AUG triplets. The translational efficiency of different picornavirus RNAs varies between different cell-free extracts and even in the same extract, such as micrococcal nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The effect of the poliovirus 5'NTR on in vitro translation was compared with that of the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis virus by the use of synthetic mRNAs, micrococcal nuclease-treated HeLa cell extracts, and rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Artificial mono- and dicistronic mRNAs synthesized with T7 RNA polymerase were used to investigate whether the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA contains a potential internal ribosomal entry site. The sequence between nucleotides 260 and 484 in the 5'NTR of encephalomyocarditis RNA was found to play a critical role in the efficient translation in both mono- and dicistronic mRNAs. Our data suggest that an internal ribosomal entry site resides in this region.  相似文献
2.
The poliovirus polyprotein is cleaved at three different amino acid pairs. Viral polypeptide 3C is responsible for processing at the most common pair (glutamineglycine). We have found that a cDNA fragment encoding parts of the capsid protein region (P1) and the nonstructural protein region (P2), and including the P1-P2 processing site (tyrosine-glycine), can be expressed in E. coli. The translation product was correctly processed. Disruption of the coding sequence of 2A, a nonstructural polypeptide mapping carboxy-terminal to the tyrosine-glycine cleavage site, by linker mutagenesis or deletion, prevented processing. Deletion of the adjacent polypeptide 2B had no such effect. Antibodies against 2A specifically inhibited processing at the 3C'-3D' processing site (tyrosine-glycine) in vitro. We conclude that poliovirus encodes the second proteinase 2A, which processes the polyprotein at tyrosine-glycine cleavage sites.  相似文献
3.
4.
The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleic acid sequences of several animal picornaviruses and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, were compared. Good homology was found between CPMV and the picornaviruses in the region of the picornavirus 2C (P2-X protein), VPg, 3C pro (proteinase) and 3D pol (RNA polymerase) regions. The CPMV B genome was found to have a similar gene organization to the picornaviruses. A comparison of the 3C pro (proteinase) regions of all of the available picornavirus sequences and CPMV allowed us to identify residues that are completely conserved; of these only two residues, Cys-147 and His-161 (poliovirus proteinase) could be the reactive residues of the active site of a proteinase with analogous mechanism to a known proteinase. We conclude that the proteinases encoded by these viruses are probably cysteine proteinases, mechanistically related, but not homologous to papain.  相似文献
5.
Proteinase 3C of poliovirus type 2 (Sabin) was expressed at 4% total protein in Escherichia coli. The protein was soluble and could be purified by a simple scheme. It was weakly active on the capsid precursor P1 (expressed in vitro), which contains two cleavage sites. The products of processing P1 were 1ABC and 1D (VP1). The activity was insensitive to Triton X-100. Crude extracts of cells infected with poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) gave strong processing and yielded 1AB (VP0), 1C (VP3), and 1D in the same assay system but were sensitive to detergent. 3C from cell extracts that was separated from its precursors resembled the recombinant proteinase in its activity. Recombinant 3C cleaved the peptide dansyl-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Met-Glu-Gln-Gly-Ile-Thr-Asn-Lys-NH2 at the Gln-Gly bond. We conclude that 3C is merely the core of the Gln-Gly-cleaving activity which processes P1 in vivo and that there is probably a hydrophobic contact between a larger 3C precursor and its P1 substrate which allows the second processing reaction: 1ABC, 1D----1AB, 1C, 1D.  相似文献
6.
Cleavage of synthetic peptides by purified poliovirus 3C proteinase   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Synthetic peptides, 14-16 residues in length, were used as substrates for purified recombinant poliovirus proteinase 3C. The sequences of the substrates correspond to the sequences of authentic cleavage sites in the poliovirus polyprotein, all of which contain Gln-Gly at the scissile bond. Specificity of cleavages was demonstrated by analysis of 3C digests of synthetic peptides. Relative rate constants for the cleavages were derived by competition experiments. The rate constants roughly correlated with the estimated half-life of the homologous precursor proteins detected in poliovirus-infected cells. The peptide most resistant to cleavage corresponded to the 3C/3D junction, a site known to be cleaved very slowly by 3C in vivo. Substitution of threonine for alanine in P4 position of this peptide, however, resulted in significant cleavage. This observation supports the hypothesis that the residue in P4 position, in addition to the Gln-Gly in P1 and P1', respectively, contributes to substrate recognition. Ac-Gln-Gly-NH2 was not a substrate for 3C.  相似文献
7.
The protein from chicken egg white that inhibits cysteine proteinases, and has been named 'cystatin', was purified by ovomucin precipitation, affinity chromatography on carboxymethylpapain-Sepharose and chromatofocusing. The final purification step separated two major forms of the protein (pI 6.5 and 5.6), with a total recovery of about 20% from egg white. By use of affinity chromatography and immunodiffusion it was shown that the inhibitor is also present at low concentrations in the serum of male and female chickens. Tryptic peptide maps of the separated forms 1 and 2 of egg-white cystatin were closely similar, and each form had the N-terminal sequence Ser-Glx-Asx. The two forms showed complete immunological identity, and neither contained carbohydrate. Ki values for the inhibition of cysteine proteinases were as follows: papain (less than 1 X 10(-11)M), cathepsin B (8 X 10(-10)M), cathepsin H (about 2 X 10(-8)M) and cathepsin L (about 3 X 10(-12)M). Some other cysteine proteinases, and several non-cysteine proteinases, were found not to be significantly inhibited by cystatin. The inhibition of the exopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase I by cystatin was confirmed and the Ki found to be 2 X 10(-10)M. Inhibitor complexes with active cysteine proteinases and the inactive derivatives formed by treatment with iodoacetate, E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido(4-guanidino)butane] and benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylalanyldiazomethane were demonstrated by isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange chromatography. The complexes dissociated in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (with or without reduction) with no sign of fragmentation of the inhibitor. Cystatin was found not to contain a free thiol group, and there was no indication that disulphide exchange plays any part in the mechanism of inhibition.  相似文献
8.
The interactions between egg-white cystatin and the cysteine proteinases papain, human cathepsin B and bovine dipeptidyl peptidase I were studied. Cystatin was shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor of cathepsin B (Ki 1.7 nM, k-1 about 2.3 X 10(-3) s-1). The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase I was shown to be reversible (Ki(app.) 0.22 nM, k-1 about 2.2 X 10(-3) s-1). Cystatin bound papain too tightly for Ki to be determined, but an upper limit of 5 pM was estimated. The association was a second-order process, with k+1 1.0 X 10(7) M-1 X s-1. Papain was shown to form equimolar complexes with cystatin. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of complexes formed between papain or cathepsin B and an excess of cystatin showed no peptide bond cleavage after incubation for 72 h. The reaction of the active-site thiol group of papain with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at pH 8 and 2,2'-dithiobispyridine at pH 4 was blocked by complex-formation. Dipeptidyl peptidase I and papain were found to compete for binding to cystatin, contrary to a previous report. The two major isoelectric forms of cystatin were found to have similar specific inhibitory activities for papain, and similar affinities for papain, cathepsin B and dipeptidyl peptidase I. This, together with specific oxidation of the N-terminal serine residue with periodate, showed the N-terminal amino group of cystatin 1 to be unimportant for inhibition. General citraconylation of amino groups resulted in a large decrease in the affinity of cystatin for dipeptidyl peptidase I. It is concluded that the interaction of cystatin with cysteine proteinases has many characteristics similar to those of an inhibitor such as aprotinin with serine proteinases.  相似文献
9.
In population- and family-based association studies, it is useful to have some knowledge of the patterns of linkage disequilibrium that exist between markers in candidate regions. When such studies are carried out with multiallelic markers, it is often convenient to group the alleles into a biallelic system, for analysis. In this study, we specifically examined the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster on chromosome 2, a region containing candidates for many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Data were collected on eight markers, four of which were multiallelic. Using these data, we investigated the effect of three allele-grouping strategies, including a novel method, on the detection of linkage disequilibrium. The novel approach, termed the "delta method," measures the deviation from the expected haplotype frequencies under linkage equilibrium, for each allelic combination. This information is then used to group the alleles, in an attempt to avoid the grouping together of alleles at one locus that are in opposite disequilibrium with the same allele at the second locus. The estimate haplotype frequencies (EH) program was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and the disequilibrium measure. In our data it was found that the delta method compared well with the other two strategies. Using this method, we found that there was a reasonable correlation between disequilibrium and physical distance in the region (r=-.540, P=.001, one-tailed). We also identified a common, eight-locus haplotype of the IL-1 gene cluster.  相似文献
10.
The three proteinases present in papaya latex: papain (EC 3.4.22.2) chymopapain and papaya proteinase III (EC 3.4.22.6), were standardized by active-site titration, and compared in proteolytic activity against azocasein, serum albumin and cartilage proteoglycan. The activities were all of the same order, although there were differences in pH dependence. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the early products of digestion of albumin and phosphorylase a showed very similar patterns for the three papaya proteinases. Kinetic parameters for hydrolysis of benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanyl-arginyl-7(4-methyl)coumarylamide were determined for the three enzymes. Values for kcat/Km varied only within a factor of 2, but the individual constants were much higher for papain than for chymopapain and papaya proteinase III. In contrast to the results obtained with the synthetic substrate, the kinetic parameters for the initial hydrolysis of succinyl-albumin were very similar for the three papaya proteinases. This was consistent with their similar proteolytic activities in other assays.  相似文献
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