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A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of < or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120 molecules derived from various strains but neutralized the viruses inefficiently. We infer therefore that the mechanism of resistance of primary isolates to most neutralizing antibodies is complex, and we suggest that it involves an inaccessibility of antibody binding sites in the context of the native glycoprotein complex on the virion. Such a mechanism would parallel that which was previously postulated for soluble CD4 resistance. We conclude that studies of HIV-1 neutralization that rely on strains adapted to growth in transformed T-cell lines yield the misleading impression that HIV-1 is readily neutralized. The more relevant primary HIV-1 isolates are relatively resistant to neutralization, although these isolates can be potently neutralized by a subset of human polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.  相似文献
2.
W.Z. Tan  Q.J. Li  L. Qing 《BioControl》2002,47(4):463-479
Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroidesG.) has become a serious weed in different crops in China. A fungal pathogen was found in Chongqing and Sichuan Provinces and was identified as a species in the Fusarium genus. The fungus produced macroconidia and chlamydospores abundantly on potato sucrose agar (PSA) plates. The bestconidial production and germination and colonygrowth of Fusarium sp. were at 23–31°C and pH 6.7–7.0. Light period and flooding did not affect fungal growth and conidium formation. The herbicides, glyphosate and paraquat, inhibited the fungal development in vitro. The fungus did not affect seed germination and seedling growth of paddy rice, wheat, maize, oilseed rape and broad bean inlaboratory or greenhouse trials. Inoculum density and wetness duration influenced the efficiency of Fusarium sp. to control alligatorweed; a concentration of 1.0 × 105 spores–1 ml and 12 h of high humidity duration after inoculation produced goodinfections on the weed at 23°C in the laboratory. When the fungus was applied to alligatorweed grown in greenhouse and in the field, good biocontrol efficiency was obtained: the plants started to wilt after four to five (greenhouse) or six days (field), and were killed 9–10 (greenhouse) or 13–14 (field) days after spraying the fungal inoculum. This was similar to the control efficiency resulting from glyphosate treatment. Therefore, this Fusarium sp. appeared to be a good candidatefor further studies and a promising biocontrol agent to manage alligatorweed in some terrestrial and aquatic crops.  相似文献
3.
Brucellosis is a worldwide disease of humans and livestock that is caused by a number of very closely related classical Brucella species in the alpha-2 subdivision of the Proteobacteria. We report the complete genome sequence of Brucella abortus field isolate 9-941 and compare it to those of Brucella suis 1330 and Brucella melitensis 16 M. The genomes of these Brucella species are strikingly similar, with nearly identical genetic content and gene organization. However, a number of insertion-deletion events and several polymorphic regions encoding putative outer membrane proteins were identified among the genomes. Several fragments previously identified as unique to either B. suis or B. melitensis were present in the B. abortus genome. Even though several fragments were shared between only B. abortus and B. suis, B. abortus shared more fragments and had fewer nucleotide polymorphisms with B. melitensis than B. suis. The complete genomic sequence of B. abortus provides an important resource for further investigations into determinants of the pathogenicity and virulence phenotypes of these bacteria.  相似文献
4.
The analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) was applied to distinguish several kinds of Anisakinae larvae, Anisakis larvae (type I) collected from two different paratenic hosts, Anisakis larvae (type II) and Contracaecum larvae. The patterns of the two different paratenic host-derived DNA of Anisakis larva (I) were exactly the same in hybridized fragments generated by six endonucleases. The quite different patterns in RFLPs of genomic DNA were observed among the Anisakis larva (I), Anisakis larva (II) and Contracaecum larvae. The results suggest that the RFLPs analysis may be useful for distinguishing Anisakinae larvae and clarifying the relationships between Anisakis larvae and their adult worms.  相似文献
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