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1.
Land use and organic carbon content of some subtropical soils   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
Summary The assumption that the organic matter content of tropical forest soils is oxidized to atmospheric carbon dioxide when these soils are converted to agricultural use was tested using results of soil surveys in Puerto Rico (1940's, 1960's, and 1980's). Results showed that under intensive agricultural use, soil carbon in the top 18 cm of soil was about 30–37 Mg/ha, regardless of climatic conditions. Reduced intensity of agricultural use resulted in an increase of soil carbon in the order of 0.3–0.5 Mg.ha−1. yr−1 over a 40-yr period. Rates of soil carbon accumulation were inversely related to the sand content of soils. The relation between rates of soil carbon accumulation and climate or soil texture were better defined at higher soil carbon content. Soils under pasture accumulated soil carbon and often contained similar or greater amounts than adjacent mature forest soils (60–150 Mg/ha in the top 25 or 50 cm). Soils in moist climates exhibited greater variations in soil carbon content with changes in land use (both in terms of loss and recovery) than did soils in dry climates. However, in all life zones studied, the recovery of soil carbon after abandonment of agriculture was faster than generally assumed. Low carbon-to-nitrogen ratios suggested that intensively used soils may be stable in their nutrient retention capacity. The observed resiliency of these soils suggested that their role as atmospheric carbon sources has been overestimated, while their potential role as atmospheric carbon sinks has been underestimated.  相似文献
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We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
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Soil samples from mature and secondary forests and agricultural sites in three subtropical life zones of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands were collected to determine the effects of forest conversion to agriculture and succession on soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents. Site characteristics that may affect soil C and N (slope, elevation, aspect, and texture) were as uniform as possible. Carbon contents (to 50 cm depth or bedrock) of cultivated sites, as a percent of corresponding mature forests, were lower in the wet (44%) and moist (31%) than in the dry (86%) life zones whereas N contents were relatively high regardless of life zone (60–130% of the mature forests). Conversion of forests to pasture resulted in less soil C and N loss than conversion to crops. The time for recovery of soil C and N during succession was approximately the same in all three life zones, about 40–50 yr for C about 15–20 yr for N. However, the rate of recovery of soil C was faster in the wet and moist life zone, whereas N appeared to recover faster in the dry life zone. Evidence for loss of soil C during cultivation and gain during succession to soil depths of 50–100 cm is presented.  相似文献
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Management of tropical soils as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
The prevailing paradigm for anticipating changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) with changes in land use postulates reductions in SOC in managed systems (agriculture and tree plantations) relative to mature tropical forests. Variations of this notion are used in carbon models to predict the role of tropical soils in the global carbon cycle. Invariably these models show tropical soils as sources of atmospheric carbon. We present data from a variety of studies that show that SOC in managed systems can be lower, the same as, or greater than mature tropical forests and that SOC can increase rapidly after the abandonment of agricultural fields. History of land use affects the comparison of SOC in managed and natural ecosystems. Our review of the literature also highlights the need for greater precautions when comparing SOC in mature tropical forests with that of managed ecosystems. Information on previous land use, bulk density, and consistency in sampling depth are some of the most common omissions in published studies. From comparable SOC data from a variety of tropical land uses we estimate that tropical soils can accumulate between 168 and 553 Tg C/yr. The greatest potential for carbon sequestration in tropical soils is in the forest fallows which cover some 250 million hectares. Increased attention to SOC by land managers can result in greater rates of carbon sequestration than predicted by current SOC models.  相似文献
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The distribution of tree biomass and the allocation of organic matter production were measured in an 11-yr-old Pinus caribaea plantation and a paired broadleaf secondary forest growing under the same climatic conditions. The pine plantation had significantly more mass aboveground than the secondary forest (94.9 vs 35.6 t ha-1 for biomass and 10.5 vs 5.0 t ha-1 for litter), whereas the secondary forest had significantly more fine roots (⩽2 mm diameter) than the pine plantation (10.5 and 1.0 t ha-1, respectively). Standing stock of dead fine roots was higher than aboveground litter in the secondary forest. In contrast, aboveground litter in pine was more than ten times higher than the dead root fraction. Both pine and secondary forests had similar total organic matter productions (19.2 and 19.4 t ha-1 yr-1, respectively) but structural allocation of that production was significantly different between the two forests; 44% of total production was allocated belowground in the secondary forest, whereas 94% was allocated aboveground in pine. The growth strategies represented by fast growth and large structural allocation aboveground, as for pine, and almost half the production allocated belowground, as for the secondary forest, illustrate equally successful, but contrasting growth strategies under the same climate, regardless of soil characteristics. The patterns of accumulation of organic matter in the soil profile indicated contrasting nutrient immobilization and mineralization sites and sources for soil organic matter formation.  相似文献
7.
Ecosystem Management in the Context of Large, Infrequent Disturbances   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Large, infrequent disturbances (LIDs) can have significant impacts yet seldom are included in management plans. Although this neglect may stem from relative unfamiliarity with a kind of event that rarely occurs in the experience or jurisdiction of individual managers, it may also reflect the assumption that LIDs are so large and powerful as to be beyond the ability of managers to affect. However, some LIDs can be affected by management, and for many of those that cannot be affected, the resilience or recovery of the system disrupted by the disturbance can be influenced to meet management goals. Such results can be achieved through advanced planning that allows for LIDs, whether caused by natural events, human activities, or a combination of the two. Management plans for LIDs may adopt a variety of goals, depending on the nature of the system and the nature of the anticipated disturbance regime. Managers can choose to influence (a) the system prior to the disturbance, (b) the disturbance itself, (c) the system after the disturbance, or (d) the recovery process. Prior to the disturbance, the system can be managed in ways that alter its vulnerability or change how it will respond to a disturbance. The disturbance can be managed through no action, preventive measures, or manipulations that can affect the intensity or frequency of the disturbance. Recovery efforts can focus on either managing the state of the system immediately after the disturbance or managing the ongoing process of recovery. This review of the management implications of LIDs suggests that management actions should be tailored to particular disturbance characteristics and management goals. Management actions should foster survival of residuals and spatial heterogeneity that promote the desired recovery pattern and process. Most importantly, however, management plans need to recognize LIDs and include the potential for such disturbances to occur. Received 14 July 1998; accepted 16 September 1998  相似文献
8.
The assumption that landscapes dominated by mature vegetation are presently in carbon steady state with the atmosphere is challenged. Evidence suggests that the vegetation and soils of these landscapes are frequently disturbed and over short time periods (<300 yr) slowly sequester atmospheric carbon. The critical consideration in this argument is the time interval used to evaluate a steady state. Current models of carbon flux through the terrestrial biota limit their time considerations to 120 yr, a short and inadequate time interval for realistic assumptions about steady state in the carbon cycle of vegetation.Research performed under subcontract 19B-07762C with S. Brown and 19X-43326C with the Center for Energy and Environment Research of the University of Puerto Rico (A. E. Lugo) under Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., contract DE-AC05-840R21400 with the U.S. Department of Energy.  相似文献
9.
The interactions between water and soil nutrient availability in determining leaf nutritional composition and structural features were investigated in forests on serpentine in Maricao and Susua (Puerto Rico). These forests grow under contrasting rainfall regimes: Maricao is a wet forest located at altitudes above 500 m and receiving more than 2500 mm rainfall, while Susua is a humid forest located well below 500 m, with less than 1500 mm rainfall and a well defined dry season. Dominant tree species and soils were analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Ni. Soils can be differentiated according to their K content (higher in Maricao) and P contents (higher in Susua). Mature leaves of both forests have sclerophyllous characteristics as judged from the Specific Leaf Areas (<80 cm2 g-1) and low P contents. Leaf area development is strongly correlated with leaf N and P contents in both forests, but Maricao samples appear to be more limited by P availability. In concordance with soil values, the Susua leaf sample set has significantly higher contents of P, but lower contents of K when compared with the Maricao sample set. Analyses of soluble K, Ca, and Mg reveal strong physiological selectivity in the absorption of these cations. K/Ca and Ca/Mg ratios are markedly higher in the soluble leaf extracts than in the soil extracts. It seems that restriction to vegetation development in the serpentine areas investigated are more related to nutritional deficiencies and not to high contents of either Mg or Ni in the upper soil layers. Only two strong Ni accumulators were found, Cassine xylocarpa (1.2 mol Ni g-1 dry mass or 70 g g-1) from Susua, and Chionanthus domingensis (12.2 mol g-1, or about 700 g g-1) from Maricao. These species are not restricted to serpentine areas in Puerto Rico.  相似文献
10.
The forests of the Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research site are subject to low-intensity, widespread disturbance that establishes levels of background mortality that contrast with periodic catastrophic mortality resulting from hurricanes and landslides. Although catastrophic mortality is more dramatic, background mortality is still more important in determining population turnover. However, catastrophic mortality may still be an important agent in determining ecosystem structure. Catastrophic disturbances affect forest function in many ways besides mortality, some of which are only apparent in the context of long-term studies. Since most ecosystems are subject to some form of catastrophic disturbance, general principles can be derived from comparative studies of disturbance in different systems.  相似文献
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