首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1566篇
  国内免费   9篇
  完全免费   45篇
  2016年   1篇
  2015年   4篇
  2014年   4篇
  2013年   5篇
  2012年   8篇
  2011年   22篇
  2010年   17篇
  2009年   88篇
  2008年   92篇
  2007年   118篇
  2006年   123篇
  2005年   112篇
  2004年   66篇
  2003年   83篇
  2002年   78篇
  2001年   78篇
  2000年   65篇
  1999年   45篇
  1998年   44篇
  1997年   35篇
  1996年   37篇
  1995年   35篇
  1994年   38篇
  1993年   38篇
  1992年   41篇
  1991年   46篇
  1990年   32篇
  1989年   39篇
  1988年   25篇
  1987年   24篇
  1986年   28篇
  1985年   31篇
  1984年   26篇
  1983年   3篇
  1982年   23篇
  1981年   31篇
  1980年   15篇
  1979年   7篇
  1978年   5篇
  1977年   5篇
  1976年   3篇
排序方式: 共有1620条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
河岸植被特征及其在生态系统和景观中的作用   总被引:110,自引:14,他引:96  
河溪生态系统、河岸植被、河溪连续系等基本概念、理论和应用,是生态学科中的重要组成部分.本文主要基于北美地区近30年来关于河溪生态系统研究,对河溪生态系统研究的历史、理论、基本概念及应用,特别是对河岸植被在河溪生态系统及景观中的结构、功能以及资源经营管理现状进行概括和总结.  相似文献
2.
景观规划中的生态廊道宽度   总被引:79,自引:6,他引:73       下载免费PDF全文
朱强  俞孔坚  李迪华 《生态学报》2005,25(9):2406-2412
生态廊道具有保护生物多样性、过滤污染物、防止水土流失、防风固沙、调控洪水等多种功能。建立生态廊道是景观生态规划的重要方法,是解决当前人类剧烈活动造成的景观破碎化以及随之而来的众多环境问题的重要措施。按照生态廊道的主要结构与功能,可将其分为线状生态廊道、带状生态廊道和河流廊道3种类型。生态廊道设计包括的关键问题有廊道数目、本底、宽度、联接度、构成要素、关键点(区)等。由于生态廊道结构与功能的复杂性,使得廊道的宽度具有很大的不确定性。具体的讲,生态廊道的宽度由保护目标、植被情况、廊道功能、周围土地利用,廊道长度等多个因素决定。合适的廊道宽度应该根据对廊道主要生态过程的研究来确定。从景观的结构与功能分析出发,分别从生物保护廊道和河流廊道两方面对生态廊道的宽度及其影响因素进行分析,并对相关研究成果进行综述,总结得出两种类型生态廊道的适宜宽度值范围。最后提出确定宽度时应该注意的相关问题。  相似文献
3.
Current velocity is a pervasive feature of lotic systems, yet this defining environmental variable is rarely examined as a factor for regulating stream herbivory. To investigate how current modifies herbivory in the upper Colorado River, U.S.A., loops of electrified fencing wire were used to reduce in situ grazer densities on 30 × 30 cm tile substrates. After 45 d, electrified tiles had significantly fewer grazers (P = 0.03) and >2X more algal biomass than controls (P = 0.0002). Reduced grazing on electrified tiles yielded periphytic assemblages having more diatoms and chlorophytes, as well as greater algal species richness. Current velocity effects alone did not significantly regulate algal abundance; however, the interaction between current velocity and grazer exclusion resulted in more algae in slow vs. fast current (P = 0.02). Grazer abundances were similar between fast and slow current velocities, suggesting that grazers in the Colorado River differ in their ability to regulate algae across the current velocity gradient. Our results indicate that stream current-mediated herbivory in streams may be more important than is generally recognized.  相似文献
4.
5.
应用底栖动物完整性指数B-IBI评价溪流健康   总被引:32,自引:5,他引:27       下载免费PDF全文
B-IBI指数是溪流生态系统健康评价常用指标之一。据安徽黄山地区溪流的33个底栖动物样点数据(11个参照点,22个受损点),对21个生物参数进行分布范围、Pearson相关性和判别能力分析,确定B-IBI指数由总分类单元数、EPT分类单元数、前3位优势分类单元%、粘附者%、敏感类群%和BI指数构成。分别用3分制、4分制和比值法统一各参数量纲,B-IBI指数值即为累加各构成指数的分值或比值。B-IBI箱线图分析表明,上述3种方法计算出的B-IBI值有较高判别能力(IQ=3),能很好地判别参照水体和受损水体,且3者之间具高相关性(r>0.90)。分别依据参照样点和所有样点B-IBI值建立健康评价标准,比较3分制、4分制和比值法对评价结果的准确性,表明用比值法统一各参数量纲并依据所有样点的B-IBI值建立的健康评价标准的准确性优于3分制和4分制法。建立了适合祁门县溪流生态系统健康评价B-IBI标准B-IBI>3.59健康,2.7~3.59亚健康,1.8~2.69一般,0.9~1.79差,B-IBI<0.9极差。祁门县21个样点的水体,14个健康,6个亚健康,1个一般。B-IBI与电导率(r=-0.62,p<0.01)和生境质量(r=0.65,p<0.01)显著相关。  相似文献
6.
基于地形和主风向效应模拟山区降水空间分布   总被引:30,自引:2,他引:28       下载免费PDF全文
孙鹏森  刘世荣  李崇巍 《生态学报》2004,24(9):1910-1915
在 ANUSPL IN和 GIS空间分析技术的支持下 ,采用岷江流域内及周边地区共计 5 1个雨量站的 1988~ 2 0 0 2年各月连续观测数据 ,模拟产生岷江上游面积达 2 2 919km2的流域范围内月平均降水量的空间分布栅格。为了体现当地季风方向和坡向之间的耦合效应 ,建立主风向效应指数 (PWEI) ,并从 DEM中提取海拔高度形成两个协变量 ,以雨量站的大地坐标位置作为独立变量。降水的模拟采用样条平滑技术 ,利用降水量值和 4个变量的统计关系拟合产生样条表面 ,并进而结合 DEM和 PWEI栅格产生空间分辨率达 5 0 0 m的降水量栅格。依据归一化交叉检验值 (GCV)确定平滑参数 ,并通过多次诊断运行实现平滑降噪 ,提高预测精度。统计结果表明 ,月平均降水量的预测误差变动在 15 %~ 4 2 %之间 ,是现有雨量站分布条件所能实现的较好的结果。雨季 (5~ 9月份 )的预测误差远小于旱季 ,表明东南季风对迎风坡面有明显的致雨效应 ,并因 PWEI的运用提高了模拟精度 ;旱季 PWEI效果不明显 ,降水分配主要依赖地形。和单纯利用海拔高度一个变量相比 ,增加 PWEI可使全年平均预测误差降低 3.0 %左右。  相似文献
7.
A mass balance procedure was used to determine rates of nitrate depletion in the riparian zone and stream channel of a small New Zealand headwater stream. In all 12 surveys the majority of nitrate loss (56–100%) occurred in riparian organic soils, despite these soils occupying only 12% of the stream's border. This disproportionate role of the organic soils in depleting nitrate was due to two factors. Firstly, they were located at the base of hollows and consequently a disproportionately high percentage (37–81%) of the groundwater flowed through them in its passage to the stream. Secondly, they were anoxic and high in both denitrifying enzyme concentration and available carbon. Direct estimates ofin situ denitrification rate for organic soils near the upslope edge (338 mg N m–2 h–1) were much higher than average values estimated for the organic soils as a whole (0.3–2.1 mg N m–2 h–1) and suggested that areas of these soils were limited in their denitrification activity by the supply of nitrate. The capacity of these soils to regulate nitrate flux was therefore under-utilized. The majority of stream channel nitrate depletion was apparently due to plant uptake, with estimates of thein situ denitrification rate of stream sediments being less than 15% of the stream channel nitrate depletion rate estimated by mass balance.This study has shown that catchment hydrology can interact in a variety of ways with the biological processes responsible for nitrate depletion in riparian and stream ecosystems thereby having a strong influence on nitrate flux. This reinforces the view that those seeking to understand the functioning of these ecosystems need to consider hydrological phenomena.  相似文献
8.
The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook   总被引:27,自引:8,他引:19  
A synthesis of the biogeochemistry of Ca was done during 1963–1992in reference and human-manipulated forest ecosystems of the Hubbard BrookExperimental Forest (HBEF), NH. Results showed that there has been a markeddecline in concentration and input of Ca in bulk precipitation, an overalldecline in concentration and output of Ca in stream water, and markeddepletion of Ca in soils of the HBEF since 1963. The decline in streamwaterCa was related strongly to a decline in SO +NO in stream water during the period. The soildepletion of Ca was the result of leaching due to inputs of acid rain duringthe past 50 yr or so, to decreasing atmospheric inputs of Ca, and tochanging amounts of net storage of Ca in biomass. As a result of thedepletion of Ca, forest ecosystems at HBEF are much more sensitive tocontinuing inputs of strong acids in atmospheric deposition than expectedbased on long-term patterns of sulfur biogeochemistry. The Ca concentrationand input in bulk precipitation ranged from a low of 1.0 µmol/and 15 mol/ha-yr in 1986–87 to a high of 8.0 µmol/ and 77mol/ha-yr in 1964–65, with a long-term mean of 2.74 µmol/during 1963–92. Average total atmospheric deposition was 61 and 29mol/ha-yr in 1964–69 and 1987–92, respectively. Dry depositionis difficult to measure, but was estimated to be about 20% of totalinput in atmospheric deposition. Streamwater concentration reached a low of21 µmol/ in 1991–92 and a high of 41 µmol/ in1969–70, but outputs of Ca were lowest in 1964–65 (121mol/ha-yr) and peaked in 1973–74 (475 mol/ha-yr). Gross outputs of Cain stream water were positively and significantly related to streamflow, butthe slope of this relation changed with time as Ca was depleted from thesoil, and as the inputs of sulfate declined in both atmospheric depositionand stream water. Gross outputs of Ca in stream water consistently exceededinputs in bulk precipitation. No seasonal pattern was observed for eitherbulk precipitation or streamwater concentrations of Ca. Net soil releasevaried from 390 to 230 mol/ha-yr during 1964–69 and 1987–92,respectively. Of this amount, weathering release of Ca, based on plagioclasecomposition of the soil, was estimated at about 50 mol/ha-yr. Net biomassstorage of Ca decreased from 202 to 54 mol/ha-yr, and throughfall plusstemflow decreased from 220 to 110 mol/ha-yr in 1964–69 and1987–92, respectively. These ecosystem response patterns were relatedto acidification and to decreases in net biomass accretion during the study.Calcium return to soil by fine root turnover was about 270 mol/ha-yr, with190 mol/ha-yr returning to the forest floor and 80 mol/ha-yr to the mineralsoil. A lower content of Ca was observed with increasing elevation for mostof the components of the watershed-ecosystems at HBEF. Possibly as a result,mortality of sugar maple increased significantly during 1982 to 1992 at highelevations of the HBEF. Interactions between biotic and abiotic controlmechanisms were evident through elevational differences in soil cationexchange capacity (the exchangeable Ca concentration in soils wassignificantly and directly related to the organic matter content of thesoils), in soil/till depth, and in soil water and in streamwaterconcentrations at the HBEF, all of which tended to decrease with elevation.The exchangeable pool of Ca in the soil is about 6500 mol/ha, and itsturnover time is quite rapid, about 3 yr. Nevertheless, the exchangeablepools of Ca at HBEF have been depleted markedly during the past 50 years orso, >21,125 mol/ha during 1940–1995. The annual gross uptake oftrees is about 26–30% of the exchangeable pool in the soil.Some 7 to 8 times more Ca is cycled through trees than is lost in streamwater each year, and resorption of Ca by trees is negligible at HBEF. Of thecurrent inputs to the available nutrient compartment of the forestecosystem, some 50% was provided by net soil release, 24% byleaching from the canopy, 20% by root exudates and 6% byatmospheric deposition. Clear cutting released large amounts of Ca tostream water, primarily because increased nitrification in the soilgenerated increased acidity and NO , a mobileanion in drainage water; even larger amounts of Ca can be lost from theecosystem in harvested timber products. The magnitude of Ca loss due towhole-tree harvest and acid rain leaching is comparable for forests similarto the HBEF, but losses from harvest must be superimposed on losses due toacid rain.  相似文献
9.
Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters   总被引:25,自引:2,他引:23  
P. S. Lake 《Freshwater Biology》2003,48(7):1161-1172
10.
Actin and pollen tube growth   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
L. Vidali  P. K. Hepler 《Protoplasma》2001,215(1-4):64-76
Summary Actin microfilaments (MFs) are essential for the growth of the pollen tube. Although it is well known that MFs, together with myosin, deliver the vesicles required for cell elongation, it is becoming evident that the polymerization of new actin MFs, in a process that is independent of actomyosin-dependent vesicle translocation, is also necessary for cell elongation. Herein we review the recent literature that focuses on this subject, including brief discussions of the actin-binding proteins in pollen, and their possible role in regulating actin MF activity. We promote the view that polymerization of new actin MFs polarizes the cytoplasm at the apex of the tube. This process is regulated in part by the apical calcium gradient and by different actin-binding proteins. For example, profilin binds actin monomers and gives the cell control over the initiation of polymerization. A more recently discovered actin-binding protein, villin, stimulates the formation of unipolar bundles of MFs. Villin may also respond to the apical calcium gradient, fragmenting MFs, and thus locally facilitating actin remodeling. While much remains to be discovered, it is nevertheless apparent that actin MFs play a fundamental role in controlling apical cell growth in pollen tubes.Dedicated to Professor Brian E. S. Gunning on the occasion of his 65th birthday  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号