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1.
The utility of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random-amplified polymorphic DNA), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and SSR (simple sequence repeat, microsatellite) markers in soybean germplasm analysis was determined by evaluating information content (expected heterozygosity), number of loci simultaneously analyzed per experiment (multiplex ratio) and effectiveness in assessing relationships between accessions. SSR markers have the highest expected heterozygosity (0.60), while AFLP markers have the highest effective multiplex ratio (19). A single parameter, defined as the marker index, which is the product of expected heterozygosity and multiplex ratio, may be used to evaluate overall utility of a marker system. A comparison of genetic similarity matrices revealed that, if the comparison involved both cultivated (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions, estimates based on RFLPs, AFLPs and SSRs are highly correlated, indicating congruence between these assays. However, correlations of RAPD marker data with those obtained using other marker systems were lower. This is because RAPDs produce higher estimates of interspecific similarities. If the comparisons involvedG. max only, then overall correlations between marker systems are significantly lower. WithinG. max, RAPD and AFLP similarity estimates are more closely correlated than those involving other marker systems.Abbreviations RFLP restriction fragment length plymorphism - RAPD random-amplified polymorphic DNA - AFLP amplified fragment length polymorphism - SSR simple sequence repeat - PCR polymerase chain reaction - TBE Tris-borate-EDTA buffer - MI marker index - SENA sum of effective numbers of alleles  相似文献
2.
 The value of molecular biology for monitoring the genetic status of germplasm collections is subject to practical limitations. The large number and variability of accessions held usually dictates the approach that can be employed. A quick, simple but reliable molecular protocol must be combined with an appropriate strategy for handling large sample sizes. In this study, ISSR-PCR was used to reveal genetic variability within and between accessions held in a collection of lupin germplasm. Pooling of DNA from individuals within accessions was found to be the most appropriate strategy for assessing large quantities of plant material. Band profiles generated from pools containing five individuals were fully representative of all constituent individuals used in the mix. Pools comprising 10 or 20 individuals, however, sometimes failed to contain minor bands that had been present only in the profile of one individual. Variation was observed between pools containing five different genotypes from the same accession. Routine large-scale screens are required to assess the genetic diversity and homogeneity of the lupin germplasm collection held in Reading. It is concluded that 2–3 pools of five genotypes may be sufficient to represent the genetic variability within and between accessions in the lupin and similar collections. Received: 10 August 1998 / Accepted: 13 November 1998  相似文献
3.
RAPD标记在紫菜遗传多样性检测和种质鉴定中的应用   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
用RAPD技术对4类紫菜(Porphyra yezoensis,P.haitanensis,P.katadni var.hemiphylla和P.oligospermatangia)的15个无性系丝状体进行了遗传多样履分析,从50个OPERON引物中经过初筛,其中6个引物可以扩增出稳定的可重复的图谱。这6个引物共扩增出了60条带,多态性比例达97.1%。根据RAPD结果将这15个无性了紫菜的DNA  相似文献
4.
耐盐水稻种质资源的筛选   总被引:35,自引:4,他引:31  
用0.8% NaCl溶液和国际水稻所水稻耐盐性9级评价方法对前人选留的38份水稻耐盐种质资源(用0.5%NaCl盐土筛选)进行了重复筛选,以期获得极端耐盐水稻种质资源.同时研究了不同盐浓度对水稻发芽率的影响.结果表明:高浓度盐溶液显著抑制水稻种子的发芽率,但品种间有较大差异;筛选出苗期极端耐盐品种6份,其中1级1份,2级4份,3级1份;极端耐盐水稻品种苗高的增长受高浓度盐溶液抑制,但品种间差异不显著;而盐溶液对极端耐盐水稻品种出叶速率的影响因品种而异.  相似文献
5.
桂花品种分类及木犀属种质资源的利用   总被引:34,自引:1,他引:33  
在总结桂花栽培品种分类的基础上,根据桂花的开花季节、花色、花期、子房发育状况(能否结实)及营养器官等性状,既考虑品种进化关系和传统分类方法,又密切结合生产实际的需要,提出了桂花品种分类的五级标准。并对木犀属的地理分布和种质资源的利用进行了讨论。  相似文献
6.
Simple sequence repeats for the genetic analysis of apple   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
 The development of highly informative markers, such as simple sequence repeats, for tagging genes controlling agronomic characters is essential for apple breeding. Furthermore the use of these markers is fundamental both for variety identification and for the characterisation and management of genetic resources. We have developed 16 reliable simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that amplify all alleles from a panel of 19 Malus x domestica (Borkh.) cultivars or breeding selections and from Malus floribunda 821. Those markers show a high level of genetic polymorphism, with on average 8.2 alleles per locus and an average heterozygosity of 0.78. Due to this high level of polymorphism, it was possible using two selected SSRs to distinguish all cultivars except Starking and Red Delicious. Ten of the markers we developed have been mapped on a RAPD linkage map, proving their Mendelian segregation as well as their random distribution in the apple genome. Finally, we discuss the importance of using co-dominant markers in outbreeding species. Received: 8 October 1997 / Accepted: 9 December 1997  相似文献
7.
 Genes cloned from diverse plants for resistance to different pathogens have sequence similarities in domains presumably involved in pathogen recognition and signal transduction in triggering the defense response. Primers based on the conserved regions of resistance genes often amplify multiple fragments that may not be separable in an agarose gel. We used denaturing polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to detect PCR products of plant genomic DNA amplified with primers based on conserved regions of resistance genes. Depending upon the primer pairs used, 30–130 bands were detected in wheat, rice, and barley. As high as 47%, 40%, and 27% of the polymorphic bands were detected in rice, barley, and wheat, respectively, and as high as 12.5% of the polymorphic bands were detected by certain primers in progeny from a cross of the wheat cultivars ‘Stephens’ and ‘Michigan Amber’. Using F6 recombinant inbred lines from the ‘Stephens’בMichigan Amber’ cross, we demonstrated that polymorphic bands amplified with primers based on leucine-rich repeats, nucleotide-binding sites and protein kinase genes, were inherited as single loci. Linkages between molecular markers and stripe rust resistance genes were detected. This technique provides a new way to develop molecular markers for assessing the genetic diversity of germplasm based upon potential candidate resistance genes in diverse species. Received : 5 September 1997 / Accepted : 6 November 1997  相似文献
8.
Genetic polymorphisms of ten microsatellite DNA loci were examined among 238 accessions of landraces and cultivars that represent a significant portion of the distribution range for both indica and japonica groups of cultivated rice. In all, 93 alleles were identified with these ten markers. The number of alleles varied from a low of 3 or 4 at each of four loci, to an intermediate value of 9–14 at five loci, and to an extra-ordinarily high 25 at one locus. The numbers of alleles per locus are much larger than those detected using other types of markers. The number of alleles detected at a locus is significantly correlated with the number of simple sequence repeats in the targeted microsatellite DNA. Indica rice has about 14% more alleles than japonica rice, and such allele number differences are more pronounced in landraces than in cultivars. The indica-japonica differentiation component accounted for about 10% of the diversity in the total sample, and twice as much differentiation was detected in cultivars as in landraces. About two-thirds as many alleles were observed in cultivars as in landraces; another two-thirds of the alleles in the cultivar group were found in modern elite cultivars or parents of hybrid rice. The majority of the simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles that were present in high or intermediate frequencies in landraces ultimately survived into modern elite cultivars and hybrids. The greater resolving power and the efficient production of massive amounts of SSR data may be particularly useful for germplasm assessment and evolutionary studies of crop plants.  相似文献
9.
Crop improvement and the dissection of complex genetic traits require germplasm diversity. Although this necessary phenotypic variability exists in diverse maize, most research is conducted using a small subset of inbred lines. An association population of 302 lines is now available--a valuable research tool that captures a large proportion of the alleles in cultivated maize. Provided that appropriate statistical models correcting for population structure are included, this tool can be used in association analyses to provide high-resolution evaluation of multiple alleles. This study describes the population structure of the 302 lines, and investigates the relationship between population structure and various measures of phenotypic and breeding value. On average, our estimates of population structure account for 9.3% of phenotypic variation, roughly equivalent to a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), with a high of 35%. Inclusion of population structure in association models is critical to meaningful analyses. This new association population has the potential to identify QTL with small effects, which will aid in dissecting complex traits and in planning future projects to exploit the rich diversity present in maize.  相似文献
10.
包埋玻璃化法超低温保存植物种质的研究进展   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
包埋玻璃化法是在玻璃化法和包埋脱水法基础上发展起来的超低温保存植物种质的新技术.它具有能同时处理大量材料,处理后恢复生长快,对材料的毒害作用较小及成芽率高等优点,已成功地用于辣根、山嵛菜等20余种植物,在植物种质资源的保存上显示出了巨大的应用潜力.本文介绍了包埋玻璃化法产生的背景及其优点,阐述了包埋玻璃化法的基本方法和预培养、包埋、脱水、化冻及恢复培养等过程,比较了该法冻存后的效果和冻存后所形成植株的遗传稳定性,同时指出了进一步研究的重点.  相似文献
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