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1.
Shen JS  Li DH  Ruan YB  Xu SY  Yu T  Zhang HW  Jiang YB 《Luminescence》2012,27(5):317-327
Supramolecular aggregation and disaggregation induced by external stimuli can impact the optical or electrical signals of the aggregates/constituting units (receptors). Therefore, manipulating supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation has recently been employed to construct novel and promising photoluminescence (PL)‐based sensing and recognition systems. The sensing systems were capable of substantially enhancing the sensitivity, relying on cooperative interactions occurring in the assembly/disassembly processes (mostly operating in emission turned‐on or emission‐enhanced mode). This review focuses mainly on recent advances in the new emerging PL‐based sensing platforms, based on manipulating the behaviours of supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation, including aggregation‐induced emission (AIE), metallophilic interactions‐related sensing (metallophilic interactions‐induced aggregation/disaggregation), metal coordination polymers‐related sensing, and other sensing systems involving supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation. In particular, those sensing systems developed by scientists in China are summarized and highlighted. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
Little is known about the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie red algal development, for example, why the group failed to evolve complex parenchyma and tissue differentiation. Here we examined expressed sequence tag (EST) data from two closely related species, Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Agardh and P. purpurea (Roth) C. Agardh, for conserved developmental regulators known from model eukaryotes, and their expression levels in several developmental stages. Genes for most major developmental families were present, including MADS‐box and homeodomain (HD) proteins, SNF2 chromatin‐remodelers, and proteins involved in sRNA biogenesis. Some of these genes displayed altered expression correlating with different life history stages or cell types. Notably, two ESTs encoding HD proteins showed eightfold higher expression in the P. purpurea sporophyte (conchocelis) than in the gametophyte (blade), whereas two MADS domain‐containing paralogs showed significantly different patterns of expression in the conchocelis and blade respectively. These developmental gene families do not appear to have undergone the kinds of dramatic expansions in copy number found in multicellular land plants and animals, which are important for regulating developmental processes in those groups. Analyses of small RNAs did not validate the presence of miRNAs, but homologs of Argonaute were present. In general, it appears that red algae began with a similar molecular toolkit for directing development as did other multicellular eukaryotes, but probably evolved altered roles for many key proteins, as well as novel mechanisms yet to be discovered.  相似文献   
3.
Sparrow R 《Bioethics》2012,26(9):464-475
I argue that the existence of sexual dimorphism poses a profound challenge to those philosophers who wish to deny the moral significance of the idea of 'normal human capacities' in debates about the ethics of human enhancement. The biological sex of a child will make a much greater difference to their life prospects than many of the genetic variations that the philosophical and bioethical literature has previously been concerned with. It seems, then, that bioethicists should have something to say about the choice between a male and a female embryo. Either, 1) parents have reason to choose boys over girls; (2) parents have reason to choose girls over boys; or, (3) parents have neither reason to choose girls over boys nor reason to choose boys over girls. Embracing either of the first two alternatives has strongly counterintuitive--and arguably morally repugnant--consequences. To motivate the third option we must either make reference to the idea of 'normal human capacities' or argue that parents should consider the interests of society when thinking about what sort of children they should bring into the world - an implication that should be extremely controversial in debates about the 'new eugenics'. I conclude, then, that the idea of 'normal human capacities' is properly crucial to reasoning about the ethics of shaping future persons.  相似文献   
4.
The aim of this study was to explore and describe how Flemish nurses experience their involvement in the care of hospitalized patients with dementia, particularly in relation to artificial nutrition or hydration (ANH). We interviewed 21 hospital nurses who were carefully selected from nine hospitals in different regions of Flanders. 'Being touched by the vulnerability of the demented patient' was the central experience of the nurses, having great impact on them professionally as well as personally. This feeling can be described as encompassing the various stages of the care process: the nurses' initial meeting with the vulnerable patient; the intense decision-making process, during which the nurses experienced several intense emotions influenced by supporting or hindering contextual factors; and the final coping process, a time when nurses came to terms with this challenging experience. From our examination of this care process, it is obvious that nurses' involvement in ANH decision-making processes that concern patients with dementia is a difficult and ethically sensitive experience. On the one hand, the feeling of 'being touched' can imply strength, as it demonstrates that nurses are willing to provide good care. On the other hand, the feeling of 'being touched' can also imply weakness, as it makes nurses vulnerable to moral distress stemming from contextual influences. Therefore, nurses have to be supported as they carry out this ethically sensitive assignment. Practical implications are given.  相似文献   
5.
A thin film of poly(hydroxymethylsiloxane) (PHMS) has been deposited on glass dishes and tested as artificial support material for vascularization from mixed cultures of endothelial cells (EC) and pericytes (PC). The EC/PC co-cultures adhered massively on PHMS, with the formation of net-like microcapillary structures. Such evidence was not found on control glass substrates in the same co-culture conditions neither on PHMS for EC and PC in monocultures. The physicochemical characterization of PHMS and control glass surface by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy, pointed to the main role of the polymer hydrophobilicy to explain the observed cellular behavior. Moreover, enhanced intercellular cross-talk was evidenced by the up-regulation and activation of cytoplasmic and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2) and iPLA(2)) expression and cPLA(2) phosphorylation, leading to the cell proliferation and microcapillary formation on the PHMS surface, as evidenced by confocal microscopy analyses. Co-cultures, established with growth-arrested PCs by treatment with mitomycin C, showed an increase in EC proliferation on PHMS. AACOCF(3) or co-transfection with cPLA(2) and iPLA(2)siRNA reduced cell proliferation. The results highlight the major role played by EC/PC cross-talk as well as the hydrophobic character of the substrate surface, to promote microcapillary formation. Our findings suggest an attractive strategy for vascular tissue engineering and provide new details on the interplay of artificial substrates and capillary formation.  相似文献   
6.
Both ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and plant proteinase inhibitors, belong to protein families known to regulate cellular homeostasis and likely involved in plant defense. Nevertheless the interest in these protein classes is due to their potential use for the treatment of several important human diseases such as cancer. Thus, in the present study, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein and wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, were engineered into a chimeric protein with cytotoxic action selective for murine tumor cells, while lacking any appreciable toxicity on murine normal cells. This chimeric protein selectively sensitizes to apoptotic death cells derived from Simian-virus-40-transformed mouse fibroblasts (SVT2 cells). The cytotoxicity of this new recombinant product has been detected also on three different human malignant cells. Therefore action on tumor cells of this protein could represent a potentially very attractive novel tool for anticancer drug design.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Tuszynski JA  Gordon R 《Bio Systems》2012,109(3):381-389
We propose a new physical mechanism of cortical rotation generation in one-cell embryos of amphibians based on a phase transition in the ensemble of microtubules localized to the cortical region of the cell interior. Microtubules, protein polymers formed from tubulin heterodimers, are highly negatively charged, which results in strong electrostatic interactions over tens of nanometers, even in the presence of counterions that partially screen electrostatic interactions. A simplified model that offers a plausible representation of these effects is based on the Ising Hamiltonian, which has been robustly applied to explain a wide range of order-disorder transitions in physics, chemistry and other sciences. An Ising model phase transition, especially with the supercooperative flow alignment effect of global rotation of the cortex, provides an alternative to models of cortical rotation based on microtubule polymerization or motor molecules. Insofar as there is any reality to the concept that microtubules are involved in consciousness, we propose that cortical rotation in the one-cell embryo is a better place to look for the purported microtubule entanglement or coherence properties than the adult brain.  相似文献   
9.
Mushayabasa S  Bhunu CP 《Bio Systems》2012,109(2):203-213
Cholera, a waterborne gastroenteric infection, remains a significant threat to public health in sub-Saharan Africa, the region most heavily affected by HIV. It is biologically plausible that immune suppression caused by HIV infection predisposes to cholera. In this paper, a simple mathematical model is developed and comprehensively analyzed to assess whether HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for cholera or not. Analytical results of the model show that the quantities R(c) and R(h), which represents the reproductive number for cholera and HIV infection, respectively, provide threshold conditions that determine cumulative new single and dual infection cases. These threshold conditions can be used to gain important insights on the epidemiological consequences of HIV and cholera coexistence in the community. Numerical results are provided to support the analytical findings. The findings suggest that in a cholera-endemic area, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for cholera.  相似文献   
10.
Aim This paper investigates the prehistoric introduction of five mammalian taxa to Carriacou (Lesser Antilles) and refines the known anthropogenic ranges for these fauna in the pre‐Columbian West Indies. The importance of such records for understanding the region’s historical biogeography and ecology is considered. Location Carriacou Island, Grenada (12°28′ N, 61°26′ W). Methods Zooarchaeological assemblages from Carriacou’s earliest documented prehistoric sites, Grand Bay and Sabazan, were analysed, and exotic taxa were identified and quantified. The timing of introductions was established based on multiple radiocarbon assays, including three new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) direct dates obtained on the bone of exotic taxa. Source species and location(s) are considered and compared with known prehistoric records for the Caribbean to synthesize anthropogenic distributions for the pre‐Columbian period. The contexts of the zooarchaeological remains are evaluated to better understand the nature and purpose of introductions. Results Zooarchaeological investigation on Carriacou reveals the occurrence of multiple mammal introductions from South American between c. ad 700 and ad 1400. This paper presents the first records for guinea pig (Cavia sp.), armadillo (Dasypus sp.), peccary (Tayassu/Pecari sp.), opossum (Didelphis sp.) and agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) from the island. Human‐mediated transport of these taxa is indicated by their absence from the record prior to human settlement of Carriacou. Several translocated species are either rare or entirely unknown for the region, and overall West Indian distributions are temporally and spatially discontinuous. Archaeological contexts indicate that mammalian introductions arose from human subsistence needs, but other social factors may have shaped the dispersal of these fauna. Main conclusions The taxonomic combination and richness of Carriacou’s introduced fauna are unusual within the region. Importantly, the new records significantly improve the known pre‐Columbian geographic range for peccary, guinea pig and armadillo. Integrated with regional records, these data augment our understanding of the Caribbean’s historical biogeography, and have the potential to improve our understanding of human mobility and anthropogenic environmental impacts in the West Indies prior to the arrival of Europeans.  相似文献   
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