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1.
Desulfurization of model and diesel oils by resting cells of Gordona sp.   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The desulfurization activity of the resting cells of Gordona sp. CYKS1 was strongly depended on harvest time and the highest value when the cells had been harvested in the early growth phase (0.12 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1). For the model oil, hexadecane containing dibenzothiophene, the specific desulfurization rate decreased as the reaction proceeded. Both the specific and the volumetric desulfurization rates were not significantly affected by the aqueous-to-oil phase ratio. The diesel oils, light gas oil and a middle distillate unit feed were desulfurized at higher rates (ca. 0.34 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1) than the model oil (0.12 mg sulfur g–1 cell–1 h–1).  相似文献   
2.
DNA glycosylases remove damaged or modified nucleobases by cleaving the N-glycosyl bond and the correct nucleotide is restored through subsequent base excision repair. In addition to excising threatening lesions, DNA glycosylases contribute to epigenetic regulation by mediating DNA demethylation and perform other important functions. However, the catalytic mechanism remains poorly defined for many glycosylases, including MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain IV), a member of the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily. MBD4 excises thymine from G·T mispairs, suppressing mutations caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine, and it removes uracil and modified uracils (e.g., 5-hydroxymethyluracil) mispaired with guanine. To investigate the mechanism of MBD4 we solved high-resolution structures of enzyme-DNA complexes at three stages of catalysis. Using a non-cleavable substrate analog, 2′-deoxy-pseudouridine, we determined the first structure of an enzyme-substrate complex for wild-type MBD4, which confirms interactions that mediate lesion recognition and suggests that a catalytic Asp, highly conserved in HhH enzymes, binds the putative nucleophilic water molecule and stabilizes the transition state. Observation that mutating the Asp (to Gly) reduces activity by 2700-fold indicates an important role in catalysis, but probably not one as the nucleophile in a double-displacement reaction, as previously suggested. Consistent with direct-displacement hydrolysis, a structure of the enzyme-product complex indicates a reaction leading to inversion of configuration. A structure with DNA containing 1-azadeoxyribose models a potential oxacarbenium-ion intermediate and suggests the Asp could facilitate migration of the electrophile towards the nucleophilic water. Finally, the structures provide detailed snapshots of the HhH motif, informing how these ubiquitous metal-binding elements mediate DNA binding.  相似文献   
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4.
The cysteine-rich region (CRR) of the β2 integrin subunit was replaced by that of β1 to give the chimera β2NV1. β2NV1 can combine with αL to form a variant leukocyte-function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 on COS cell surface, suggesting that the specificity of the β2 interaction with αL does not lie in the CRR. Unlike those expressing wild-type LFA-1, COS cells expressing αLβ2NV1 are constitutively active in intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 adhesion. These results suggest that activation of LFA-1 involves the release of an intramolecular constraint, which is maintained, in part, by the authentic β2 CRR.  相似文献   
5.
《Cell reports》2020,30(1):112-123.e4
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6.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) is extensively used as tumour marker as it strongly recognises the cancer specific T antigen (Galβ1→3GalNAc-), but not its sialylated version. However, an additional specificity towards Galβ1→4GlcNAc (LacNAc), which is not tumour specific, had been attributed to PNA. For correct interpretation of lectin histochemical results we examined PNA sugar specificity using naturally occurring or semi-synthetic glycoproteins, matrix-immobilised galactosides and lectin-binding tissue glycoproteins, rather than mono- or disaccharides as ligands. Dot-blots, transfer blots or polystyrene plate coatings of the soluble glycoconjugates were probed with horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates of PNA and other lectins of known specificity. Modifications of PNA-binding glycoproteins, including selective removal of O-linked oligosaccharides and treatment with glycosidases revealed that Galβ1→4GlcNAc (LacNAc) was ineffective while terminal α-linked galactose (TAG) as well as exposed T antigen (Galβ1→3 GalNAc-) was excellent as sugar moiety in glycoproteins for their recognition by PNA. When immobilised, melibiose was superior to lactose in PNA binding. Results were confirmed using TAG-specific human serum anti-α-galactoside antibody.  相似文献   
7.
We encountered a fourth case of honey allergy in Japan. We characterized and identified the IgE-binding proteins in honey using the serum of a honey-allergenic patient. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IgE in the patient serum specifically bound to four proteins in each honey sample. At least three of these IgE-binding proteins were N-linked glycoproteins. To identify the 60-kDa IgE-binding protein in dandelion honey, the N-terminal sequences of the fragmented protein were analyzed, revealing the protein to be major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP 1). Three IgE-binding proteins removed of N-linked oligosaccharide showed a large reduction in IgE-binding activity as compared with the intact protein. This suggests that the carbohydrates in the IgE-binding proteins are a major epitope for patient IgE.  相似文献   
8.
Since their discovery, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing minerals have received considerable attention for their role in the mineralization of bone, dentin and calcified cartilage. Additionally, MVs' association with collagen fibrils, which serve as the scaffold for calcification in the organic matrix, has been repeatedly highlighted. The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a MVs–mimicking model (PEG-S-ACP/micelle) in vitro for studying the exact mechanism of MVs-mediated extra/intra fibrillar mineralization of collagen in vivo. In this study, high-concentration serine was used to stabilize the amorphous calcium phosphate (S-ACP), which was subsequently mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form PEG-S-ACP nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded in the polysorbate 80 micelle through a micelle self-assembly process in an aqueous environment. This MVs–mimicking model is referred to as the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model. By adjusting the pH and surface tension of the PEG-S-ACP/micelle, two forms of minerals (crystalline mineral nodules and ACP nanoparticles) were released to achieve the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar mineralization, respectively. This in vitro mineralization process reproduced the mineral nodules mediating in vivo extrafibrillar mineralization and provided key insights into a possible mechanism of biomineralization by which in vivo intrafibrillar mineralization could be induced by ACP nanoparticles released from MVs. Also, the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model provides a promising methodology to prepare mineralized collagen scaffolds for repairing bone defects in bone tissue engineering.  相似文献   
9.
FAB1/PIKfyve是介导PI(3,5)P2 (磷脂酰肌醇3,5-二磷酸)生物合成的磷酸肌醇激酶。在动物和酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)中, PI(3,5)P2参与调控胞内膜运输, 但在植物中的研究较少。该文通过分析拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana) FAB1的T-DNA插入突变体的表型解析PI(3,5)P2的生物学功能。拟南芥FAB1基因家族包含FAB1AFAB1BFAB1CFAB1D四个基因。研究发现, fab1a/b呈现雄配子体致死的表型。利用遗传杂交获得fab1b/c/d三突变体, 发现FAB1BFAB1CFAB1D功能缺失导致根毛相比野生型变短, 经FAB1特异性抑制剂YM201636处理后的野生型中也观察到相似的短根毛表型。此外, fab1b/c/d三突变体中DR5转录水平降低。同时, 外源施加生长素类似物2,4-D和NAA能部分恢复fab1b/c/d植株短根毛的表型, 但fab1b/c/d突变体对生长素转运抑制剂(1-NOA和TIBA)的敏感性与野生型相似。此外, FAB1B/C/D功能缺失使根毛中ROS的含量减少且影响肌动蛋白的表达。上述结果表明, FAB1B/C/D通过调控生长素分布、ROS含量和肌动蛋白的表达影响拟南芥根毛伸长。  相似文献   
10.
《Developmental cell》2022,57(8):995-1008.e5
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