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1.
6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (ATP: D-fructose-6-phosphate-2-phosphotransferase) and D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities have been found in extracts prepared from etiolated mung bean seedlings. The activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase exhibits a sigmoidal shape in response to changes in concentrations of both substrates, D-fructose 6-phosphate and ATP (S0.5 values of 1.8 and 1.2 mM, respectively). Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) has a strong stimulating effect on the 2-kinase activity (A0.5 at about 2 mM), moderately increasing the Vmax and modifying the response into hyperbolic curves with Km values of 0.4 and 0.2 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, respectively. 3-Phosphoglycerate (I0.5 about 0.15 mM) partially inhibited the kinase activity by counteracting the Pi activation. In contrast, the activity of D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Km 0.38 mM) is strongly inhibited by Pi (I0.5 0.8 mM) lowering its affinity to fructose-2,6-P2 (Km 1.4 mM). 3-Phosphoglycerate activites the enzyme (A0.5 at about 0.3 mM) without causing a significant change in its Km for fructose-2,6-P2. The activities of both of these enzymes in relationship to the metabolic role of D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the germinating seed is discussed.  相似文献   
2.
Promotion and inhibition of vesicle fusion by polylysine   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A E Gad  M Bental  G Elyashiv  H Weinberg  S Nir 《Biochemistry》1985,24(22):6277-6282
Polylysine induced rapid aggregation of large unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine-cardiolipin (1:1 molar ratio) but not their fusion. Application of the terbium-dipicolinic acid fusion assay showed that addition of polylysine at nanomolar concentrations enabled a significant lowering of the Ca2+ threshold concentration for vesicle fusion from 9 to 1 mM. Analysis of the kinetics of fusion with a mass-action kinetic model showed that polylysine enhanced significantly the rate of aggregation but affected only slightly the rate of fusion per se. Maximal enhancement of overall fusion rates occurred at a charge ratio (polylysine/cardiolipin) of about 0.5. At larger polylysine concentrations, e.g., at charge ratios greater than 3, polylysine inhibited vesicle fusion.  相似文献   
3.
Negatively charged large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were incubated with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. xanthi) cell suspensions and with the cell-free medium of the cell suspensions. The extent of cell-LUV interaction was determined by the leakage of the LUV contents. Cells enhanced the leakage of LUV contents and this effect increased with cell age. Addition of polylysine to the reaction mixture increased even further the leakage of the LUV contents. The cell-free medium of the cell suspension also affected the integrity of the LUV. Cell-free medium, by itself, promoted leakage of LUV contents and caused a reduction in the leakage exerted by polylysine. Centrifugation (8000g) of the cell-free medium decreased its effect, heat treatment (122°C) did not alter its effect and sonication enhanced it. The effects of the cell-free medium are attributed to the presence of cell wall debris of disintegrated cells.  相似文献   
4.
A major nutritional drawback of many crop plants is their low content of several essential amino acids, particularly lysine. The biosynthesis of lysine in plants is regulated by several feedback loops. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS) from Escherichia coli, a key enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, which is considerably less sensitive to lysine accumulation than the endogenous plant enzyme has been expressed in chloroplasts of tobacco leaves. Expression of the bacterial enzyme was accompanied by a significant increase in the level of free lysine. No increase in protein-bound lysine was evident. Free lysine accumulation was positively correlated with the level of DHPS activity in various transgenic plants. Compartmentalization of DHPS in the chloroplast was essential for its participation in lysine biosynthesis as no lysine overproduction was obtained in transgenic plants that expressed the bacterial enzyme in the cytoplasm. The elevated level of free lysine in the transgenic plants was sufficient to inhibit, in vivo, a second key enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, namely, aspartate kinase, with no apparent influence on lysine accumulation. The present report not only provides a better understanding of the regulation of lysine biosynthesis in higher plants but also offers a new strategy to improve the production of this essential amino acid.  相似文献   
5.
The activity of transglutaminase (TG) was examined in the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) during development and after postganglionic nerve crush. During postnatal development the enzyme activity is increased by sevenfold in parallel to protein content of the ganglion and reaches adult levels by day 35 after birth. The endogenous activity (enzyme activity assayed in the absence of the exogenous substrate) during development is transiently elevated with a peak at day 21 postnatal. In the adult ganglion the enzyme specific activity is evenly distributed in all subcellular compartments, but most of it is contained in the cytosol. Within the first hour after axotomy TG activity is rapidly and transiently elevated. The peak value, 80% above control levels, is attained by 30 min postoperative. At this time the activity is increased in all subcellular fractions, but the endogenous activity is selectively increased in the fraction containing nuclei. The enhanced TG activity after axotomy can be prevented by topical treatments with verapamil, an inhibitor of voltage-dependent calcium fluxes across excitable membranes, or with the calcium chelator EGTA. The results show that intracellular TG activity is present in the SCG and that it increases with postnatal growth of the ganglion. After axotomy the enzyme activity is rapidly and transiently increased in the ganglion and this elevation critically depends on calcium fluxes.  相似文献   
6.
The Jacob and Monod scheme for the regulation of enzyme formation leads to the following relation between the relative rate of enzyme synthesis α and cellular effector concentration E (the lower sign is for repressible systems): log (α/1 - α - αb) = ± n log [E] + log αb ± log K1. This equation permits linear plotting of experimental data and the evaluation of three quantities: n, the number of effector molecules combining with a repressor molecule, K1, the dissociation constant of this interaction and K2/Rt, the ratio of repressor-operator dissociation constant to total repressor concentration. Measurements on the repression of alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli as a function of phosphate concentration are reported and fit the proposed equation with n = 1, indicating that the binding of a single phosphate to the repressor species may be sufficient to cause repression. K1 of this interaction was found to be 0.58 ±0.11 × 10-3 M. The available data regarding the enzymes of the lac operon in a variety of E. coli strains, and several other enzymes are analyzed. It is confirmed that the lac repressor interacts with 2 isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG) molecules to relieve repression with a K1 = 50 ±20 × 10-12 M2. In some strains, separate binding constants for the first and second IPTG molecules can be evaluated.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Parietochloris incisa comb. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta)   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
A coccoid green alga, Myrmecia incisa Reisigl, was isolated from the soil of Mt Tateyama, Japan. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the organism has pyrenoids sparsely covered with starch segments and traversed by many parallel thylakoid membranes, and zoo-spores with counterclockwise basal body orientation. Due to the presence of these features, we have proposed a reclassification of M. incisa into the genus Parietochloris, Trebouxiophyceae.  相似文献   
9.
In plant seeds, the essential amino acid lysine auto-regulates its own level by modulating the activity of its catabolic enzyme lysine-ketoglutarate reductase via an intracellular signaling cascade, mediated by Ca2+ and protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. In the present report, it has been further tested whether the activity of soybean lysine-ketoglutarate reductase, as well as that of saccharopine dehydrogenase, the second enzyme in the pathway of lysine catabolism, are modulated by direct phosphorylation of the bifunctional polypeptide containing both of these linked activities. Incubation of purified lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/ saccharopine dehydrogenase with casein kinase II resulted in a significant phosphorylation of the bifunctional enzyme. Moreover, in vitro dephosphorylation of the bifunctional polypeptide with alkaline phosphatase significantly inhibited the activity of lysine-ketoglutarate reductase, but not of its linked enzyme saccharopine dehydrogenase. The inhibitory effect of alkaline phosphatase on lysine-ketoglutarate reductase activity was dramatically stimulated by binding of lysine to the enzyme. Our results suggest that in plant seeds, active lysine-ketoglutarate reductase is a phospho-protein, and that its activity is modulated by opposing actions of protein kinases and phosphatases. Moreover, this modulation is subject to a compound regulation by lysine.  相似文献   
10.
Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) results from defective hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the liver, in most cases because of defective phenylalanine hydroxylase. HPA is highly variable, ranging from moderate elevation of plasma phenylalanine with no clinical consequences to a severe disease, classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Non-PKU HPA was found in excess of PKU in Israel, while the opposite is true in Europe. To study the genetic basis of non-PKU HPA, we performed haplotype analysis at the phenylalanine hydroxylase locus in 27 families with non-PKU HPA. All individuals with this condition were compound heterozygotes. In six of these families, in which both PKU and non-PKU HPA were segregating, haplotype analysis showed that non-PKU HPA resulted from compound heterozygosity for a PKU mutation and a second mutation, with milder effect, which is probably expressed only when it interacts with the severe mutation. The involvement of PKU mutations in non-PKU HPA was further demonstrated in Jewish Yemenite families with non-PKU HPA, in which the individuals with this condition were carriers of the single PKU allele which exists in this community. In addition, two previously known PKU point mutations (R261Q and R408W) were found in individuals with non-PKU HPA. These mutations are associated, in our population, with the same haplotypes as those with which it is associated in Europe. Based on the above-mentioned genetic model for non-PKU HPA, successful prenatal diagnosis of this condition was performed in one family.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献   
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