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1.
Basic local alignment search tool   总被引:1550,自引:0,他引:1550  
A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.  相似文献
2.
The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.  相似文献
3.
A workbench for multiple alignment construction and analysis   总被引:126,自引:0,他引:126  
Multiple sequence alignment can be a useful technique for studying molecular evolution, as well as for analyzing relationships between structure or function and primary sequence. We have developed for this purpose an interactive program, MACAW (Multiple Alignment Construction and Analysis Workbench), that allows the user to construct multiple alignments by locating, analyzing, editing, and combining "blocks" of aligned sequence segments. MACAW incorporates several novel features. (1) Regions of local similarity are located by a new search algorithm that avoids many of the limitations of previous techniques. (2) The statistical significance of blocks of similarity is evaluated using a recently developed mathematical theory. (3) Candidate blocks may be evaluated for potential inclusion in a multiple alignment using a variety of visualization tools. (4) A user interface permits each block to be edited by moving its boundaries or by eliminating particular segments, and blocks may be linked to form a composite multiple alignment. No completely automatic program is likely to deal effectively with all the complexities of the multiple alignment problem; by combining a powerful similarity search algorithm with flexible editing, analysis and display tools, MACAW allows the alignment strategy to be tailored to the problem at hand.  相似文献
4.
PSI-BLAST is an iterative program to search a database for proteins with distant similarity to a query sequence. We investigated over a dozen modifications to the methods used in PSI-BLAST, with the goal of improving accuracy in finding true positive matches. To evaluate performance we used a set of 103 queries for which the true positives in yeast had been annotated by human experts, and a popular measure of retrieval accuracy (ROC) that can be normalized to take on values between 0 (worst) and 1 (best). The modifications we consider novel improve the ROC score from 0.758 ± 0.005 to 0.895 ± 0.003. This does not include the benefits from four modifications we included in the ‘baseline’ version, even though they were not implemented in PSI-BLAST version 2.0. The improvement in accuracy was confirmed on a small second test set. This test involved analyzing three protein families with curated lists of true positives from the non-redundant protein database. The modification that accounts for the majority of the improvement is the use, for each database sequence, of a position-specific scoring system tuned to that sequence’s amino acid composition. The use of composition-based statistics is particularly beneficial for large-scale automated applications of PSI-BLAST.  相似文献
5.
Amino acid substitution matrices from an information theoretic perspective   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
Protein sequence alignments have become an important tool for molecular biologists. Local alignments are frequently constructed with the aid of a "substitution score matrix" that specifies a score for aligning each pair of amino acid residues. Over the years, many different substitution matrices have been proposed, based on a wide variety of rationales. Statistical results, however, demonstrate that any such matrix is implicitly a "log-odds" matrix, with a specific target distribution for aligned pairs of amino acid residues. In the light of information theory, it is possible to express the scores of a substitution matrix in bits and to see that different matrices are better adapted to different purposes. The most widely used matrix for protein sequence comparison has been the PAM-250 matrix. It is argued that for database searches the PAM-120 matrix generally is more appropriate, while for comparing two specific proteins with suspected homology the PAM-200 matrix is indicated. Examples discussed include the lipocalins, human alpha 1 B-glycoprotein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and the globins.  相似文献
6.
Optimal sequence alignment using affine gap costs   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
When comparing two biological sequences, it is often desirable for a gap to be assigned a cost not directly proportional to its length. If affine gap costs are employed, in other words if opening a gap costsv and each null in the gap costsu, the algorithm of Gotoh (1982,J. molec. Biol. 162, 705) finds the minimum cost of aligning two sequences in orderMN steps. Gotoh's algorithm attempts to find only one from among possibly many optimal (minimum-cost) alignments, but does not always succeed. This paper provides an example for which this part of Gotoh's algorithm fails and describes an algorithm that finds all and only the optimal alignments. This modification of Gotoh's algorithm still requires orderMN steps. A more precise form of path graph than previously used is needed to represent accurately all optimal alignments for affine gap costs.  相似文献
7.
A panoramic view of yeast noncoding RNA processing   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
Predictive analysis using publicly available yeast functional genomics and proteomics data suggests that many more proteins may be involved in biogenesis of ribonucleoproteins than are currently known. Using a microarray that monitors abundance and processing of noncoding RNAs, we analyzed 468 yeast strains carrying mutations in protein-coding genes, most of which have not previously been associated with RNA or RNP synthesis. Many strains mutated in uncharacterized genes displayed aberrant noncoding RNA profiles. Ten factors involved in noncoding RNA biogenesis were verified by further experimentation, including a protein required for 20S pre-rRNA processing (Tsr2p), a protein associated with the nuclear exosome (Lrp1p), and a factor required for box C/D snoRNA accumulation (Bcd1p). These data present a global view of yeast noncoding RNA processing and confirm that many currently uncharacterized yeast proteins are involved in biogenesis of noncoding RNA.  相似文献
8.
Protein sequence similarity searches using patterns as seeds.   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17       下载免费PDF全文
Protein families often are characterized by conserved sequence patterns or motifs. A researcher frequently wishes to evaluate the significance of a specific pattern within a protein, or to exploit knowledge of known motifs to aid the recognition of greatly diverged but homologous family members. To assist in these efforts, the pattern-hit initiated BLAST (PHI-BLAST) program described here takes as input both a protein sequence and a pattern of interest that it contains. PHI-BLAST searches a protein database for other instances of the input pattern, and uses those found as seeds for the construction of local alignments to the query sequence. The random distribution of PHI-BLAST alignment scores is studied analytically and empirically. In many instances, the program is able to detect statistically significant similarity between homologous proteins that are not recognizably related using traditional single-pass database search methods. PHI-BLAST is applied to the analysis of CED4-like cell death regulators, HS90-type ATPase domains, archaeal tRNA nucleotidyltransferases and archaeal homologs of DnaG-type DNA primases.  相似文献
9.
Weights for data related by a tree   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
How can one characterize a set of data collected from different biological species, or indeed any set of data related by an evolutionary tree? The structure imposed by the tree implies that the data are not independent, and for most applications this should be taken into account. We describe strategies for weighting the data that circumvent some of the problems of dependency.  相似文献
10.
Gap costs for multiple sequence alignment   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Standard methods for aligning pairs of biological sequences charge for the most common mutations, which are substitutions, deletions and insertions. Because a single mutation may insert or delete several nucleotides, gap costs that are not directly proportional to gap length are usually the most effective. How to extend such gap costs to alignments of three or more sequences is not immediately obvious, and a variety of approaches have been taken. This paper argues that, since gap and substitution costs together specify optimal alignments, they should be defined using a common rationale. Specifically, a new definition of gap costs for multiple alignments is proposed and compared with previous ones. Since the new definition links a multiple alignment's cost to that of its pairwise projections, it allows knowledge gained about two-sequence alignments to bear on the multiple alignment problem. Also, such linkage is a key element of recent algorithms that have rendered practical the simultaneous alignment of as many as six sequences.  相似文献
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