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1.
Two monoclonal antibodies designated BAT085 and G3-136 were raised by immunizing BALB/c mice with gp120 purified from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB-infected H9 cell extracts. Among three HIV-1 laboratory isolates (IIIB, MN, and RF), BAT085 neutralized only IIIB infection of CEM-SS cells, whereas G3-136 neutralized both IIIB and RF. These antibodies also neutralized a few primary HIV-1 isolates in the infection of activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In indirect immunofluorescence assays, BAT085 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or MN, while G3-136 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or RF, but not MN. Using sequence-overlapping synthetic peptides of HIV-1 IIIB gp120, the binding site of BAT085 and G3-136 was mapped to a peptidic segment in the V2 region (amino acid residues 169 to 183). The binding of these antibodies to immobilized gp120 was not inhibited by the antibodies directed to the principal neutralization determinant in the V3 region or to the CD4-binding domain of gp120. In a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, soluble CD4 inhibited G3-136 but not BAT085 from binding to gp120. Deglycosylation of gp120 by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H or reduction of gp120 by dithiothreitol diminished its reactivity with G3-136 but not with BAT085. These results indicate that the V2 region of gp120 contains multiple neutralization determinants recognized by antibodies in both a conformation-dependent and -independent manner.  相似文献
2.
A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies against the relatively conserved CD4-binding domain on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 was generated by immunizing mice with purified gp120. These monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots (immunoblots). By using synthetic peptides as antigens in the immunosorbent assay, the epitopes of these seven monoclonal antibodies were mapped to amino acid residues 423 to 437 of gp120. Further studies with radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed that they cross-reacted with both gp120 and gp160 of diverse HIV-1 isolates (HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, and HTLV-IIIWMJ). They also bound specifically to H9 cells infected with HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, HTLV-IIIZ84, and HTLV-IIIZ34 in indirect immunofluorescence studies. In addition, they blocked effectively the binding of HIV-1 to CD4+ C8166 cells. Despite the similarity of these properties, the monoclonal antibodies differed in neutralizing activity against HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, and HTLV-IIIAL, as demonstrated in both syncytium-forming assays and infectivity assays. Our findings suggest that these group-specific monoclonal antibodies to the putative CD4-binding domain on gp120 are potential candidates for development of therapeutic agents against acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome.  相似文献
3.
W S Hu  R Y Wang  R S Liou  J W Shih  S C Lo 《Gene》1990,93(1):67-72
Cloned 2.2-kb DNA (plasmid psb-2.2) of Mycoplasma incognitus, a pathogen in AIDS and non-AIDS patients [Lo et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 41 (1989) 364-376; 601-616], contains a 1405-bp genetic element closely resembling bacterial insertion sequence (IS) elements. This IS-like element has 29-bp terminal inverted repeats with seven mismatches, is immediately flanked by 3-bp direct repeats, and has typical stem-and-loop structures at or near both the termini. Two potential open reading frames (ORF-1 and ORF-2) encode 143 amino acids (aa) and 103 aa, respectively, in this IS-like element. Part (57 aa) of the deduced aa sequence of ORF-2 has a significant homology (43%) with the putative transposase of Escherichia coli IS3. In this study, a series of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides each containing a specific sequence of a selected segment in psb-2.2, have been used as probes which reveal that the IS-like element occurs more than ten times in the genome of M. incognitus. This potentially transposable element has many characteristic features in common with bacterial IS elements.  相似文献
4.
Murine mAb BAT123, which was made against the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), is capable of neutralizing HTLV-IIIB in vitro. It also inhibits the fusion between uninfected CD4+ cells and HIV-1-infected cells to form syncytia. As a step to explore the potential utility of the anti-HIV antibody in vivo, we have constructed a mouse-human chimeric antibody by rDNA techniques. The chimeric antibody, which bears the variable domains of mouse antibody BAT123 and constant domains Cr1 and C kappa of human Ig retains the Ag specificity of BAT123 as determined by its reactivity with HIV-1-infected H9 cells, gp120 in Western blot analysis, and the oligopeptide recognized by BAT123. The antiviral activities of the chimeric antibody in neutralizing HIV-1 infection as well as inhibiting the syncytia formation are also found identical to those of the parent murine antibody. Moreover, in the presence of human blood mononuclear cells, the chimeric antibody but not BAT123 (mouse IgG1) induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The findings point to the potential usefulness of the chimeric antibody in treating patients infected with HIV-1.  相似文献
5.
A murine mAb BAT123 (Ab1) directing to the principal neutralization site of human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-IIIB gp120 (amino acid residue 308-322) was used to generate syngeneic anti-Id mAb (Ab2). Among the Ab2, a mAb AB19-4 was characterized by both serologic and biologic methods to be paratope-specific (Ab2 beta), bearing the internal image of the neutralization site. AB19-4 was found to bind specifically to BAT123 and also to its mouse-human chimeric form in ELISA. The binding of AB19-4 to BAT123 was specifically inhibited by HTLV-IIIB gp120 and the synthetic epitope peptides of HTLV-IIIB and HTLV-IIIMN defined by BAT123. AB19-4 also inhibited the binding of BAT123 to HTLV-IIIB-infected H9 cells in flow cytometric studies. Polyclonal goat and sheep antisera against HTLV-IIIB gp120 reacted specifically with AB19-4, suggesting that AB19-4 may recognize cross-species idiotopes. Rabbits immunized with purified AB19-4 generated anti-anti-Id antibodies (Ab3) that reacted specifically with HTLV-IIIB gp120 and the BAT123-binding epitope peptides of HTLV-IIIB and HTLV-IIIMN. The Ab3 bound to H9 cells infected by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN and inhibited the infection of CEM cells by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN, whereas BAT123 also bound H9 cells infected by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN but neutralized only HTLV-IIIB. Our data suggest that AB19-4 mimics the neutralization site on HIV-1 gp120 defined by BAT123. The induction of immunity to HIV using internal-image Ab2 to HIV-neutralizing antibodies may provide a viable approach for developing effective vaccines for AIDS.  相似文献
6.
We molecularly cloned and analyzed an N-tropic ecotropic retrovirus induced with iododeoxyuridine from RFM/Un mouse cell cultures. Based on the restriction map, the RFM/Un virus appears to be indistinguishable from other induced N-tropic retroviruses. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the long terminal repeat of an infectious clone revealed structural features characteristic of murine type C retrovirus long terminal repeats. The U3 region of the RFM/Un virus long terminal repeat, however, contained no short sequence duplication or insertion found in other murine leukemia virus isolates.  相似文献
7.
8.
Control of RFM strain endogenous retrovirus in RFM mouse cells   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
RFM/Un mice express an endogenous type C retrovirus throughout their life span in many tissues; primary or established embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not express a virus but can be induced by exposure to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. All of our sources yielded a single ecotropic virus (RFV) which appeared to be related more closely to the endogenous N-tropic virus (WN1802N) of BALB/c mice than to Gross leukemia virus on the basis of two-dimensional gel electropherograms of virion proteins. No xenotropic or recombinant viruses were isolated by cocultivation techniques. RFV is N-tropic, and RFM/Un cells possess the Fv-1n allele, as indicated by restriction of B-tropic virus and susceptibility to Gross strain N-tropic virus. However, RFM cells are highly resistant to RFV and other endogenous N-tropic viruses. This resistance is expressed by two-hit titration kinetics and by inhibition of viral linear duplex DNA formation. This is similar to the effects of the Fv-1 locus, but preliminary work has shown no apparent genetic linkage between the two restrictions. The relative strength of the restriction, the presence of a single class of ecotropic virus, and the absence of recombinant viruses suggest that in RFM mice virus is expressed only in cells in which it is induced and not by cell-to-cell transmission.  相似文献
9.
The consistent application of phosphatase inhibitors and a novel final purification step using a connected series of DE-51, DE-52, and DE-53 anion-exchange chromatography columns facilitate the preparation of electrophoretically homogeneous subpopulations of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase which differ in their catalytic properties and endogenous covalent phosphate content. A band of "high"-phosphate enzyme (fraction II) flanked by regions of "low"-phosphate enzyme (fractions I and III) is an unusual feature of the final purification profile. Fractions I (containing in this case 0.42 mol of P/82 000 g of enzyme) and II (containing 1.26 mol of P/82 000 g of enzyme) exhibit the most pronounced functional differences of the fractions. Following our original report [Liou, R.-S., & Anderson, S. R. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 2684], both are activated by the addition of rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Under the assay conditions, half-maximal stimulation of phosphofructokinase activity occurs at 15.4 nM actin (in terms of monomer) for fraction I and 9.7 nM for fraction II. The low-phosphate enzyme is synergistically activated in the presence of 0.12 microM actin plus 3.0 microM fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, with a marked increase in Vmax, while the high-phosphate enzyme is not. Neither fraction is activated appreciably by the addition of G-actin or the chymotrypsin-resistant actin "core". The covalently cross-linked trimer of actin stimulates the activity of both the low- and high-phosphate enzyme fractions. However, the previously mentioned synergistic activation characteristic of fraction I fails to occur in solutions containing the trimer plus fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Phosphorylation of fraction I in an in vitro reaction catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase causes its properties to become more like those of fraction II. The total amount of covalent phosphate present after in vitro phosphorylation approaches 2 mol of P/82 000 g of enzyme for both fractions.  相似文献
10.
R S Liou  S Anderson 《Biochemistry》1980,19(12):2684-2688
Striking effects of F-actin and the reconstituted thin filament of muscle on the catalytic activity of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase are demonstrated through direct measurements of enzymatic activity by using the pH stat. The addition of F-actin to solutions of phosphofructokinase at low ionic strength (10 mM KCl and 5 mM MgCl2) partially reverses the inhibition of the enzyme seen at high ATP concentrations and increases the apparent affinity of the enzyme for fructose 6-phosphate with slight effect on Vmax. F-Actin augments the activation of the enzyme obtained with AMP and partially counters the inhibition obtained with citrate. The maximum effect in the reversal of ATP inhibition is about the same for combinations of either F-actin or the thin filament with AMP as it is for AMP alone. In general, the effect of F-actin on the catalytic activity of phosphofructokinase is larger than that of the thin filament. The activation of phosphofructokinase by F-actin persists at physiological ionic strength.  相似文献
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