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Mammalian phospholipase D structure and regulation.   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
The recent identification of cDNA clones for phospholipase D1 and 2 has opened the door to new studies on its structure and regulation. PLD activity is encoded by at least two different genes that contain catalytic domains that relate their mechanism of action to phosphodiesterases. In vivo roles for PLD suggest that it may be important for multiple specialized steps in receptor dependent and constitutive processes of secretion, endocytosis, and membrane biogenesis.  相似文献
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Phospholipase D (PLD) genes are members of a superfamily that is defined by several highly conserved motifs. PLD in mammals has been proposed to play a role in membrane vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. Using site-directed mutagenesis, 25 point mutants have been made in human PLD1 (hPLD1) and characterized. We find that a motif (HxKxxxxD) and a serine/threonine conserved in all members of the PLD superfamily are critical for PLD biochemical activity, suggesting a possible catalytic mechanism. Functional analysis of catalytically inactive point mutants for yeast PLD demonstrates that the meiotic phenotype ensuing from PLD deficiency in yeast derives from a loss of enzymatic activity. Finally, mutation of an HxKxxxxD motif found in a vaccinia viral protein expressed in the Golgi complex results in loss of efficient vaccinia virus cell-to-cell spreading, implicating the viral protein as a member of the superfamily and suggesting that it encodes a lipid modifying or binding activity. The results suggest that vaccinia virus and hPLD1 may act through analogous mechanisms to effect viral cellular egress and vesicular trafficking, respectively.  相似文献
4.
Phosphoinositides are both substrates for second messenger-generating enzymes and spatially localized membrane signals that mediate vital steps in signal transduction, cytoskeletal regulation and membrane trafficking. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity is stimulated by phosphoinositides, but the mechanism and physiological requirement for such stimulation to promote PLD-dependent cellular processes is not known. To address these issues, we have identified a site at which phosphoinositides interact with PLD and have assessed the role of this region in PLD function. This interacting motif contains critical basic amino acid residues that are required for stimulation of PLD activity by phosphoinositides. Although PLD alleles mutated at this site fail to bind to phosphoinositides in vitro, they are membrane-associated and properly localized within the cell but are inactive against cellular lipid substrates. Analogous mutations of this site in yeast PLD, Spo14p, result in enzymes that localize normally, but with catalytic activity that has dramatically reduced responsiveness to phosphoinositides. The level of responsiveness to phosphoinositides in vitro correlated with the ability of PLD to function in vivo. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that phosphoinositide regulation of PLD activity observed in vitro is physiologically important in cellular processes in vivo including membrane trafficking and secretion.  相似文献
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Cut, paste, and save: new approaches to altering specific genes in mice   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
M A Frohman  G R Martin 《Cell》1989,56(2):145-147
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We have isolated and cloned the full length cDNA for mouse GH-releasing hormone (mGRH) from mouse hypothalamus using a recently described strategy involving the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were selected based on short (six amino acids) conserved regions in the human and rat GRH peptides that would recognize DNA sequences encoding similar amino acids regardless of codon usage. Primer-extended cDNA was amplified by PCR on cDNA templates prepared by reverse transcribing total mouse hypothalamic RNA. After cloning and sequencing the initial product, the 3' and 5' ends of mGRH were generated using a separate PCR strategy (RACE protocol). The mGRH cDNA encodes a 103-amino acid reading frame, structurally similar to the human and rat GRH genes, containing a signal sequence, a 42-residue GRH peptide, and a 31-residue C-terminal region. Although the structures of mouse and rat GRH are highly conserved in the signal peptide and C-terminal region, there is considerable diversity in the GRH region, which exhibits nearly comparable homology with the rat (68%) and human (62%) structures. Differences between mouse and rat GRH were also found in the amino acid cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends of the mature peptide and at the polyadenylation signal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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Hypothalamic GRH gene expression has been shown to be negatively regulated by GH in both rat and mouse. The recent reports of different 5' untranslated sequences in mouse GRH cDNA from hypothalamus and placenta have raised the possibility of tissue-specific regulation of the GRH gene. To provide support for this possibility, we have studied rodent models with GH deficiency due to genetic defects in the pituitary. Complementary DNA probes for the hypothalamic and placental 5' regions were used to determine the tissue specificity of each mRNA. Although the hypothalamic form of GRH mRNA was detected in placenta, it constituted less than 0.7% of total placental GRH mRNA. A placental 5' probe (based on the previously reported sequence) hybridized only with a larger mRNA species and was not tissue specific, indicating that it was not related to GRH and was derived possibly from a cloning artifact. The correct 5' sequence of mouse placental GRH cDNA was determined and shown to be distinct from both that previously reported and the hypothalamic sequence. Although the placental form of GRH mRNA was detected in hypothalamus using the polymerase chain reaction, its levels were undetectable by Northern blotting. The 5' end of rat placental GRH cDNA was similarly sequenced and shown to exhibit no homology with the rat 5' hypothalamic sequence, but a high degree of homology with the corresponding mouse placental sequence. In GH-deficient dwarf (dw/dw) rats, hypothalamic GRH mRNA levels were significantly increased above control levels in both females and males, and pregnancy did not alter the levels in either (dw) or control rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a central role in the control of vesicle budding and protein transit. We previously showed that in resting epithelial HT29-cl19A cells, PLD is implicated in the control of constitutive protein transit, from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane, and that phorbol ester stimulation of protein transit is correlated with PLD activation (Auger, R., Robin, P., Camier, B., Vial, G., Rossignol, B., Tenu, J.-P., and Raymond, M.-N. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 28652-28659). In this paper we demonstrate that: 1) PLD is not implicated in the earliest phases of protein transit; 2) PLD controls apical but not basolateral protein transit; 3) HT29-cl19A cells express PLD1b and PLD2a mRNAs and proteins; 4) the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of PLD2 (mPLD2-K758R) significantly inhibited apical constitutive protein transit whereas expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of PLD1 (hPLD1b-K898R) prevented increases in the rate of apical transit as triggered by phorbol esters; 5) PLD2 appears to be located in a perinuclear region containing the Golgi whereas PLD1, which is scattered in the cytoplasm in resting cells, is translocated to the plasma membrane after phorbol ester stimulation. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that in HT29-cl19A cells, both PLDs regulate protein transit between the trans-Golgi network and the apical plasma membrane, but that they do so at different steps in the pathway.  相似文献
9.
The recent identification of cDNA clones for phospholipase D has opened the door to new types of investigations into its structure and regulation. PLD activity has been found to be encoded by at least two different genes that contain catalytic domains that relate their mechanism of action to phosphodiesterases. In vivo roles for PLD suggest that it may be important for multiples steps in regulated secretion and membrane biogenesis.  相似文献
10.
Two members of the murine labial (lab) subfamily of Antennapedia-like homeobox-containing genes, Hox-1.6 and Hox-2.9, have been identified previously. Here we describe a third member genetically linked to the Hox-4 cluster on chromosome 2. This gene, designated Hox-4.9, is similar in structure to the other lab subfamily members. However, little coding sequence other than the homeobox and sequences immediately upstream of it have been conserved. By in situ hybridization analysis, Hox-4.9 mRNA is first detected at the end of the late streak stage (E7.75) in presumptive lateral and extraembryonic mesoderm. During early neurogenesis (E8.0-8.5), Hox-4.9 is detected solely in lateral mesoderm; its lack of expression in somitic mesoderm and the neural tube makes it unique among the Hox genes. By late neurogenesis and through mid-gestation (E9.0-E11.5), Hox-4.9 is no longer detected in lateral mesoderm but is found instead in a restricted region of presumed trunk neural crest and in the dermatome. These data are discussed in comparison with what is known about expression of the other members of the lab subfamily.  相似文献
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