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1.
Using the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique, we recordedaction potentials, voltage-activated cationic currents and putativesecond messenger-activated currents in receptor neurons in thevomeronasal sensory epithelium of female rats. The resting membranepotential and input resistance were –45.5 ± 2.5mV (mean ± SEM, n = 39) and 1.5 ± 0.2 G  相似文献
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Three kinds of liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine (PC), azolectin, and azolectin-containing membrane proteins of the canine erythrocytes were used as models for olfactory cells. To explore properties of the adsorption sites of odorants, membrane fluidity changes in response to various odorants were measured with various fluorescence dyes which monitor the fluidity at different depths and different regions of the membranes. (a) Application of various odorants changed the membrane fluidity of azolectin liposomes. The patterns of membrane fluidity changes in response to odorants having a similar odor were similar to each other and those in response to odorants having different odors were different from each other. These results suggested that odorants having a similar odor are adsorbed on a similar site and odorants having different odors are adsorbed on different sites. (b) Such variation of the pattern was not seen in liposomes of a simple composition (PC liposome). (c) In the proteoliposomes whose composition was more complex than that of azolectin liposomes, the patterns of membrane fluidity changes varied among odorants having a similar odor. It was concluded that liposomes of complex membrane composition have the variety of adsorption sites for odorants.  相似文献
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A suspension of olfactory epithelial cells was prepared from porcine olfactory mucosa and the physiological functions of the suspension were examined. The membrane potential of the cell suspension, which was monitored by measuring the fluorescence changes of rhodamine 6G, was depolarized by an increase in the K+ concentration in the external medium. Various odorants depolarized the cell suspension in a dose-dependent fashion. The magnitude of depolarization by odorants was either unchanged or slightly increased by a reduction of the concentration of Na+, Ca2+, and Cl- in the external medium, which suggests that changes in the permeabilities of specific ions are not involved in depolarization by odorants. The application of various odorants to the cell suspension induced changes in the membrane fluidity at different sites of the membrane that were monitored with various fluorescent dyes [8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate, n-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acids, 12-(9-anthroyloxy) oleic acid, and (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene)], which suggests that the odorants having different odors are adsorbed on different sites in the membrane. On the basis of these results, a possible mechanism of odor discrimination is discussed.  相似文献
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In the present study, we examined the concentration dependenceof odor discrimination in turtle olfactory bulbar responsesusing the cross-adaptation technique. In the odorant pairs withdiverse molecular structures, the degree of discrimination wasunchanged or only slightly decreased with an increase in odorantconcentrations, suggesting that odorants are well discriminatedeven at high concentrations. In the odorant pairs with closelyrelated molecular structures, the degree of discrimination wasdecreased with an increase in odorant concentrations. An increasein the temperature of turtle olfactory epithelium also decreasedthe ability to discriminate these odorants. There was a goodcorrelation between changes in the odor discriminating abilityinduced by an increase in odor concentrations and those inducedby a temperature increase. The liposomes were made of lipidsextracted from the turtle olfactory epithelia and changes oftheir membrane fluidity induced by adsorption of odorants weremonitored with DPH. There was a good correlation between a decreasein odor discriminating ability and the membrane fluidity changesinduced by odorants. We suggest that decreases in odor discriminatingability induced either by an increase in odor concentrationor by a temperature increase are ultimately caused by changesin the membrane fluidity. Chem. Senses 22: 553–563, 1997.  相似文献
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Using the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique, we recorded action potentials, voltage-activated cationic currents, and inward currents in response to water-soluble and volatile odorants from receptor neurons in the lateral diverticulum (water nose) of the olfactory sensory epithelium of Xenopus laevis. The resting membrane potential was -46.5 +/- 1.2 mV (mean +/- SEM, n = 68), and a current injection of 1-3 pA induced overshooting action potentials. Under voltage-clamp conditions, a voltage-dependent Na+ inward current, a sustained outward K+ current, and a Ca2+-activated K+ current were identified. Application of an amino acid cocktail induced inward currents in 32 of 238 olfactory neurons in the lateral diverticulum under voltage-clamp conditions. Application of volatile odorant cocktails also induced current responses in 23 of 238 olfactory neurons. These results suggest that the olfactory neurons respond to both water-soluble and volatile odorants. The application of alanine or arginine induced inward currents in a dose-dependent manner. More than 50% of the single olfactory neurons responded to multiple types of amino acids, including acidic, neutral, and basic amino acids applied at 100 microM or 1 mM. These results suggest that olfactory neurons in the lateral diverticulum have receptors for amino acids and volatile odorants.  相似文献
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Using the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique, we attempted to record inward currents in response to cAMP, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and odorants from sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium of the Xenopus laevis lateral diverticulum (water nose). Dialysis of 100 microM of IP(3) induced inward currents, while dialysis of 1 mM of cAMP into olfactory neurons did not induce any response under the voltage-clamp conditions. Changes in membrane conductance were examined by applying ramp pulses. The slope of the current-voltage (I-V) curve during the IP(3)-induced response was steeper than that after the response, indicating that IP(3) increased the membrane conductance. The water nose olfactory neurons have been shown to respond to both amino acids and volatile odorants. The slopes of I-V curves during responses to amino acids and a volatile odorant, lilial, were similar to those before the responses, suggesting that the total membrane conductance was not changed during responses to amino acids and the volatile odorant.  相似文献
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In olfactory receptor cells, it is well established that cyclic AMP (cAMP) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) act as second messengers during odor responses. In previous studies, we have shown that cAMP-increasing odorants induce odor responses even after complete desensitization of the cAMP-mediated pathway. These results suggest that at least one cAMP-independent pathway contributes to the generation of odor responses. In an attempt to identify a novel second messenger, we investigated the possible role of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) in olfactory transduction. Turtle olfactory receptor cells were isolated using an enzyme-free procedure and loaded with fura-2/AM. The cells responded to dialysis with cADPR with an inward current and an increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](i). Flooding of cells with 100 microM cADPR from the pipette also induced an inward current without changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in Na(+)-containing and Ca(2+)-free Ringer solution. In an Na(+)-free and Ca(2+)-containing Ringer solution, cADPR induced only a small inward current with a concomitant increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Inward currents and increases in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by cADPR were completely inhibited by removal of both Na(+) and Ca(2+) from the outer solution. The experiments suggest that cADPR activates a cation channel at the plasma membrane, allowing inflow of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions. The magnitudes of the inward current responses to cAMP-increasing odorants were greatly reduced by prior dialyses of a high concentration of cADPR or 8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose (8-Br-cADPR), an antagonist. It is possible that the cADPR-dependent pathway contributes to the generation of olfactory responses.  相似文献
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The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are thought to be involved in the entry of calcium ion into cells. In this study, we isolated a cDNA clone, HrTRPV, that shows high homology to Caenorhabditis elegans OSM-9, a TRPV subfamily member of the TRP family, from a Halocynthia roretzi fertilized egg cDNA library. We analyzed its properties using HrTRPV-transfected cells. Upon reduction of extracellular osmolarity, the intracellular calcium concentration was found to increase in HrTRPV-transfected cells. This increase in intracellular calcium concentration was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium ion and was inhibited by treatment with gadolinium ion, a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker. Thus, these results indicate that ascidian egg HrTRPV is an osmotically sensitive TRP channel.  相似文献
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