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We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
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Leaf phyllotaxis: Does it really affect light capture?   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The intriguing mathematical properties of leaf phyllotaxis still attract scientific attention after centuries of research. Phyllotaxis, and in particular the divergence angle between successive leaves, have been frequently interpreted in terms of maximization of light capture, although certain model simulations of light capture by vertical shoots revealed minor effects of phyllotaxis in comparison with the effect of other morphological features of the plant. However, these simulations assumed a number of simplifications, did not take into account diffuse light, and were not based on real plants with their natural range of morphological variation. This study was aimed at filling these gaps by examining the influence on light harvesting of shoot architecture and divergence angle in four species with spiral phyllotaxis (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, Heteromeles arbutifolia and Daphne gnidium) with a realistic 3-D model (Y-plant). A wide range of divergence angles (from 100° to 154°) was observed within each species, with 144° being the most frequent one. These different divergence angles rendered very different vertical projections of the shoot due to contrasting patterns of leaf overlap as seen from above, but they rendered indistinguishable light interception efficiencies (Ea). Setting the leaves with an opposite-decussate phyllotaxis led, however, to a 40–50% decrease of Ea. The interplay of internode length, leaf size and shape, and leaf elevation angle led to significant species differences in Ea. Thus, only particular phyllotaxis (e.g., decussate) might be functionally inefficient under certain combinations of the various morphological variables that influence light capture of a shoot. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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In Mediterranean–continental regions, changes in land use are leading to the expansion of valuable habitats like endemic Juniperus thurifera woodlands, but the impact of reduced rainfall, due to climate change, on this expansion remains uncertain. We assessed the early performance of J. thurifera in different global change scenarios with and without facilitation. Saplings were transplanted in three ecosystems types with different previous land use (woodlands, former agricultural fields, and former livestock pastures), microhabitats (open vs. understory of adult trees) and were subjected to two watering regimens. We characterized the abiotic environment and measured survival, growth and two ecophysiological parameters. Former livestock pastures were the least favorable ecosystem, where the nursing effect was greatest. Former agricultural fields had the highest survival, but were more sensitive than woodlands to water scarcity. Reduced rainfall decreased photochemical efficiency, particularly in the least favorable scenarios, but did not affect survival. Water use efficiency enhanced growth under the canopy, but not in the open, whereas photochemical efficiency enhanced growth and survival more in the open. Facilitation was critical for effective recruitment in the harshest scenarios: former livestock pastures and reduced rainfall. Comparison with previous studies suggests that establishment depends on infrequent wet episodes. In Mediterranean ecosystems, changes in land use and climate change are leading to woodland expansion due to the modulating effect of facilitation of the oncoming adverse drier conditions. Nevertheless, the positive effect of facilitation and the negative impact of aridity on tree recruitment are strongly influenced by previous land-use history.  相似文献
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Inter-specific differences in seedling survival responses along a sun-shade gradient and the influence of low-water availability were examined for four Iberian tree species (Quercus robur L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Ait.) typical of the cool temperate–Mediterranean transition zone. Seedlings were grown under controlled conditions in a factorial experiment with four levels of irradiance (1%, 6%, 20% and 100% of full sunlight) and two levels of water availability. Five censuses (from late spring to autumn) leading to four regular intervals (T0 → TI; TI → TII; TII → TIII; TIII → TIV) were established. Statistical models of seedling survival as a function of irradiance were calibrated throughout the whole experiment (T0 → TIV) and also for each time interval and water availability level. Seedling survival responses among different species diverged both in the type of functional response to irradiance and in their response to water stress. Ranking of species according to shade tolerance (Q. pyrenaica > Q. robur > P. sylvestris > P. pinaster) contrasted with tolerance of high irradiance and conformed to a hypothetical sun-shade trade-off for survival (i.e. species having higher survival in low irradiance—oaks—had poorer survival at high irradiance and vice-versa). Low-water availability also differentially affected each species, with pines being more drought tolerant than oaks. At an intra-specific level, low-water availability decreased survival of Q. pyrenaica under both high and low irradiance. For Q. robur, however, low-water availability exerted a relatively stronger effect under low irradiance. Consequences of the interplay between irradiance and water availability for explaining segregation and coexistence of forest tree species at the ecotone between cool temperate and Mediterranean forests are discussed.  相似文献
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