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A new method for the extraction of microcystins RR and LR in cyanobacteria was developed using a cyano cartridge. Lyophilized cells (100 mg) were extracted with 5% (v/v) acetic acid. The extract was centrifuged and then the supernatant was applied to a CN cartridge. The cartridge that contained microcystins was rinsed with 5 ml of water and 5 ml of 0.5 M acetic acid, followed by 5 ml of 5% acetonitrile in water. Microcystins were finally eluted from the CN cartridge with 70% acetonitrile in water and were determined by HPLC. Better recoveries and chromatograms were observed than with ODS cartridges.  相似文献
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Green rice leafhopper (GRH, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) is one of the insect pests that damage cultivated rice in East Asia. GRH also transmits viruses such as rice dwarf virus. The mortality of GRH nymphs is high in rice cultivar Shingwang, indicating that Shingwang is resistant to GRH. Genetic analyses were performed to map GRH resistance in Shingwang using F2 and F3 populations derived from a cross between a GRH-resistant near-isogenic line (NIL-IS60) from Shingwang and recurrent parent Ilpum. Resistance to GRH in Shingwang was found to be controlled by a single dominant gene (Grh1) mapped within an approximately 670-kb region between 8.10 and 8.77 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 5. Genotypes with three simple sequence repeat markers (RM18166, RM516, and RM18171) and one indel marker (Indel 15040) co-segregated with GRH resistance controlled by the Grh1 locus. A detailed map of the Grh1 locus will facilitate marker-assisted selection of resistance to GRH in rice breeding.  相似文献
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In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are short-lived molecules produced through various cellular mechanisms in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli. ROS function as second messengers for hormone signaling, development, oxygen deprivation, programmed cell death, and plant–pathogen interactions. Recent research on ROS-mediated responses has produced stimulating findings such as the specific sources of ROS production, molecular elements that work in ROS-mediated signaling and homeostasis, and a ROS-regulated gene network (Neill et al., Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:388–395, 2002a; Apel and Hirt, Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399, 2004; Mittler et al., Trends Plant Sci 9:490–498, 2004; Mori and Schroeder, Plant Physiol 135:702–708, 2004; Kwak et al., Plant Physiol 141:323–329, 2006; Torres et al., Plant Physiol 141:373–378, 2006; Miller et al., Physiol Plant 133:481–489, 2008). In this review, we highlight new discoveries in ROS-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Drs. Daeshik Cho and June M. Kwak are the corresponding authors for this paper.  相似文献
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The selective interactions between DNA and miniature (39 residues) engineered peptide were directly measured at the single‐molecule level by using atomic force microscopy. This peptide (p007) contains an α‐helical recognition site similar to leucine zipper GCN4 and specifically recognizes the ATGAC sequence in the DNA with nanomolar affinity. The average rupture force was 42.1 pN, which is similar to the unbinding forces of the digoxigenin–antidigoxigenin complex, one of the strongest interactions in biological systems. The single linear fit of the rupture forces versus the logarithm of pulling rates showed a single energy barrier with a transition state located at 0.74 nm from the bound state. The smaller koff compared with that of other similar systems was presumably due to the increased stability of the helical structure by putative folding residues in p007. This strong sequence‐specific DNA–peptide interaction has a potential to be utilized to prepare well‐defined mechanically stable DNA–protein hybrid nanostructures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
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