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水稻品种对白背飞虱的抗源筛选及其抗性遗传分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
通过抗性鉴定,筛选出6个抗白背飞虱的国内品种:鬼衣谷、大花谷、大齐谷、便谷、滇瑞336.3和HA 79317-7(前4个品种均系云南地方品种)。遗传分析证明,这6个品种对白背飞虱的抗性均受单显性基因控制。HA 79317-7的抗性基因与Wbph1等位,滇瑞336-3的抗性基因与Wbph2等位。鬼衣谷、大齐谷、大花谷和便谷的抗性基因均与Wbph1、Wbph2非等位。它们与Wbph3、Wbph5的等位关系还有待进一步研究。  相似文献
2.
扑虱灵对稻飞虱的防治效果,及对捕食性天敌的毒性,进行了田间试验,并与叶蝉散,杀虫双的使用结果作比较.试验结果表明,扑虱灵对稻飞虱的防治效果达93%,与叶蝉散,杀虫双相比较。防治效果提高了2.39~32.85%.对黑肩绿盲蝽和蜘蛛种群具有不同程度的选择性,维护较低的稻飞虱与天敌的比值,有利于天敌作用的发挥,维持对稻飞虱较长的残效期,基本上可以控制稻田后期飞虱的增长.  相似文献
3.
Aspergillus flavus isolated from naturally infected leaf-eating caterpillar (Opisina arenosella W.), lace bug (Stephanitis typica D.) and plant hopper (Proutista moesta Westwood), insect pests of the coconut palm, were tested for aflatoxin (AT) production by employing various media formulations. These A. flavus isolates were earlier found to be entomopathogenic in laboratory bioassays. A laboratory contaminant and four standard aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were also included in this study as reference strains. All A. flavus isolates were tested on seven AT detection media: coconut extract agar, coconut extract-sodium desoxycholate agar, coconut extract-ascorbic acid agar, coconut extract-Czapek Dox agar, coconut extract-milk powder agar, 10% commercial coconut milk powder agar (CCMPA) and 20% CCMPA. Only two isolates of A. flavus, originally isolated from O. arenosella and P. moesta, produced ATs. AT production was detected within 48 h of incubation and was detected continually up to 1 month. These AT-producing A. flavus isolates also produced bright yellow pigmentation in the medium. Of all the seven media used for AT detection, CCMPA (10%) was found to be the best one, followed by 20% CCMPA, for direct and rapid AT detection. AT production was not necessary for pathogenicity in the insects. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
4.
The mermithid parasite, Agamermis unka, is the most important natural enemy of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, in Korean rice fields. Very little is known about many aspects of the mermithid's life cycle and behavior, and a study was undertaken to close the data gap. The sex ratio of A. unka isolated from field-collected BPH showed a strong female bias. Even when several A. unka occurred within a BPH, the majority were females. Similarly, the sex ratio of field-collected A. unka adults that were in the soil was strongly biased towards females and, in many instances, the females were found in the absence of males. Females collected from the field from January to May and maintained in water at 25 C had a mean pre-oviposition period of 17-28 days and a mean oviposition period of 17-37 days, and averaged 543-1851 eggs/female. The eggs averaged 20, 17 and 36 days to hatch at 30, 25 and 20 C respectively, but none hatched at 15 C. Most of the eggs (96%) hatched at 25 and 20 C, but only 64% hatched at 30 C. Agamermis pre-parasites could be found on rice stems in the field and laboratory. In the field, BPH-susceptible and BPH-resistant rice cultivars showed no significant difference in the numbers of pre-parasites on the stem. In the laboratory, the number of pre-parasites recovered/rice stem was significantly higher in two out of three trials when BPH nymphs and adults were present. When BPH nymphs were exposed to the pre-parasites in the laboratory, 39% of the brachypterous females and 4.5% of the brachypterous males were parasitized, whereas 0.3% of the macropterous females and 0% of the macropterous males were parasitized. The parasitism data obtained under field conditions showed similar trends. The reason(s) for these differences in parasitism between the BPH sex and wing types that have been observed both in the laboratory and field is unknown. Because brachypterous males and macropterous females and males occur in lesser numbers than the brachypterous females, this may, in part, account for the differences in parasitism observed. However, BPH behavior cannot be discounted as a factor in the differential parasitism.  相似文献
5.
褐飞虱是水稻生产中最严重的害虫之一,从野生稻中发掘抗虫基因,有利于培育具有抗虫能力强的水稻新品种。该研究通过对云南野生稻进行温室和大田抗虫鉴定以及9个已知抗褐飞虱基因的PCR鉴定,发现云南野生稻对褐飞虱表现出不同程度的抗性,尤其疣粒野生稻和药用野生稻对褐飞虱表现出高抗,可作为抗虫基因发掘的优良抗源材料;不同褐飞虱抗性的云南野生稻中含有的抗褐飞虱基因差异很大,3种野生稻中均不含Bph1和Bph18(t)抗病基因,景洪普通野生稻和元江普通野生稻可能含bph2基因,东乡普通野生稻可能含bph2、Bph15和Bph27(t)基因,疣粒野生稻中可能含bph2和bph19(t)基因,药用野生稻和药用野生稻(宽叶型)中可能含bph2和Bph6基因,药用野生稻F1中可能含bph2、Bph14和bph20(t)基因,药用野生稻F2中可能含bph2和Bph27(t)基因或者其同源基因。该研究为快速发掘利用云南野生稻中的抗虫基因奠定了理论基础。  相似文献
6.
Superparasitism in solitary parasitoids results in fatal competition between the immature parasitoids, and consequently only one individual can emerge. In the semisoli- tary ovicidal parasitoid Echthrodelphaxfairchildii (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), 2 adults can emerge under superparasitism with a short interval (〈24 h) between the first and second ovipositions. We determined the female parasitoid's behavioral responses under self- and conspecific superparasitism bouts with first-to-second oviposition intervals of 〈2 h. The self- and conspecific superparasitizing frequencies increased up to an oviposition interval of 0.75 h, with the former remaining lower than the latter, particularly for oviposition intervals of _〈0.25 h, suggesting the existence of self-/conspecific discrimination. The superparasitizing frequency plateaued for oviposition intervals of _〉0.75 h, with no dif- ference between self- and conspecific superparasitism. The ovicidal-probing frequency did not differ under self- and conspecific superparasitism, and was usually 〈20%. The females exhibited no preference for the oviposition side (i.e., ovipositing on the side with or without the first progeny) and almost always laid female eggs for any oviposition in- terval under self- and conspecific superparasitism. The sex ratio was not affected by the type of superparasitism, oviposition sides, or the occurrence of ovicidal probing. These observed results about the oviposition side, ovicidal probing, and sex ratios differed from the predictions obtained assuming that the females behave optimally. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are discussed: likely candidates include the high cost of selecting oviposition sides and ovicidal probing, and, for the sex ratio, the low frequency of encountering suitable hosts before superparasitism bouts.  相似文献
7.
分析23年(1984~2006)重庆市秀山县褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)观测圃与田间的系统调查资料,揭示出该虫年度间和年度内的田间种群发生动态规律。褐飞虱在观测圃条件下,2000年前常是大发生以上,2000年以来发生程度变轻,常是中等偏重以下,但近3年来又有回升的势头,各年均呈比大田发生偏重的趋势。年度间主害期呈推迟的趋势。年度内,稻苗移栽后即可见虫,一直到收获;前期虫量较小,中期增多,后期较大,主害期在后期。观测圃的褐飞虱发生高峰期比大田早5d左右。观测圃虫量在水稻前期与大田相当,中、后期有差异,特别是后期差异较大,是大田的2~10倍。观测圃的天敌种类主要是蜘蛛、黑肩绿肓蝽、螯蜂、隐翅虫和稻红瓢虫;天敌数量在水稻中期和后期分别比大田多30%和40%以上,对褐飞虱有一定的控制作用。还讨论褐飞虱田间种群动态研究在生产上的应用。  相似文献
8.
K Anuradha  S Agarwal  YV Rao  KV Rao  BC Viraktamath  N Sarla 《Gene》2012,508(2):233-240
Identifying QTLs/genes for iron and zinc in rice grains can help in biofortification programs. 168 F(7) RILs derived from Madhukar×Swarna were used to map QTLs for iron and zinc concentrations in unpolished rice grains. Iron ranged from 0.2 to 224ppm and zinc ranged from 0.4 to 104ppm. Genome wide mapping using 101 SSRs and 9 gene specific markers showed 5 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 significantly linked to iron, zinc or both. In all, 14 QTLs were identified for these two traits. QTLs for iron were co-located with QTLs for zinc on chromosomes 7 and 12. In all, ten candidate genes known for iron and zinc homeostasis underlie 12 of the 14 QTLs. Another 6 candidate genes were close to QTLs on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Thus the high priority candidate genes for high Fe and Zn in seeds are OsYSL1 and OsMTP1 for iron, OsARD2, OsIRT1, OsNAS1, OsNAS2 for zinc and OsNAS3, OsNRAMP1, Heavy metal ion transport and APRT for both iron and zinc together based on our genetic mapping studies as these genes strictly underlie QTLs. Several elite lines with high Fe, high Zn and both were identified.  相似文献
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