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排序方式: 共有108条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
Almost a decade ago, a new phylogeny of bilaterian animals was inferred from small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that claimed the monophyly of two major groups of protostome animals: Ecdysozoa (e.g., arthropods, nematodes, onychophorans, and tardigrades) and Lophotrochozoa (e.g., annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, brachiopods, and rotifers). However, it received little additional support. In fact, several multigene analyses strongly argued against this new phylogeny. These latter studies were based on a large amount of sequence data and therefore showed an apparently strong statistical support. Yet, they covered only a few taxa (those for which complete genomes were available), making systematic artifacts of tree reconstruction more probable. Here we expand this sparse taxonomic sampling and analyze a large data set (146 genes, 35,371 positions) from a diverse sample of animals (35 species). Our study demonstrates that the incongruences observed between rRNA and multigene analyses were indeed due to long-branch attraction artifacts, illustrating the enormous impact of systematic biases on phylogenomic studies. A refined analysis of our data set excluding the most biased genes provides strong support in favor of the new animal phylogeny and in addition suggests that urochordates are more closely related to vertebrates than are cephalochordates. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of morphological and genomic data.  相似文献
Detection of lateral gene transfer among microbial genomes   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
An increasingly comprehensive assessment is being developed of the extent and potential significance of lateral gene transfer among microbial genomes. Genomic sequences can be identified as being of putatively lateral origin by their unexpected phyletic distribution, atypical sequence composition, differential presence or absence in closely related genomes, or incongruent phylogenetic trees. These complementary approaches sometimes yield inconsistent results. Not only more data but also quantitative models and simulations are needed urgently.  相似文献
While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea, and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca, and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid (Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein data sets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on the method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms and maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nymphaeales clade as sister. The ML phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single-gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates, and conflicting indel characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 MYA for the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all extant angiosperms and 145 MYA for the MRCA of monocots, magnoliids, and eudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in branch lengths and molecular dating estimates, the impact of improved taxon sampling on the rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny together with the results of parametric bootstrap analyses demonstrate how long-branch attraction might mislead genome-scale phylogenetic analyses.  相似文献
类群取样与系统发育分析精确度之探索   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
Appropriate and extensive taxon sampling is one of the most important determinants of accurate phylogenetic estimation. In addition, accuracy of inferences about evolutionary processes obtained from phylogenetic analyses is improved significantly by thorough taxon sampling efforts. Many recent efforts to improve phylogenetic estimates have focused instead on increasing sequence length or the number of overall characters in the analysis, and this often does have a beneficial effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses. However, phylogenetic analyses of few taxa (but each represented by many characters) can be subject to strong systematic biases, which in turn produce high measures of repeatability (such as bootstrap proportions) in support of incorrect or misleading phylogenetic results. Thus, it is important for phylogeneticists to consider both the sampling of taxa, as well as the sampling of characters, in designing phylogenetic studies. Taxon sampling also improves estimates of evolutionary parameters derived from phylogenetic trees, and is thus important for improved applications of phylogenetic analyses. Analysis of sensitivity to taxon inclusion, the possible effects of long-branch attraction, and sensitivity of parameter estimation for model-based methods should be a part of any careful and thorough phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, recent improvements in phylogenetic algorithms and in computational power have removed many constraints on analyzing large, thoroughly sampled data sets. Thorough taxon sampling is thus one of the most practical ways to improve the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates, as well as the accuracy of biological inferences that are based on these phylogenetic trees.  相似文献
A phylogenomic investigation into the origin of metazoa   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The evolution of multicellular animals (Metazoa) from theirunicellular ancestors was a key transition that was accompaniedby the emergence and diversification of gene families associatedwith multicellularity. To clarify the timing and order of specificevents in this transition, we conducted expressed sequence tagsurveys on 4 putative protistan relatives of Metazoa includingthe choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata, the ichthyosporeans Sphaeroformaarctica and Amoebidium parasiticum, and the amoeba Capsasporaowczarzaki, and 2 members of Amoebozoa, Acanthamoeba castellaniiand Mastigamoeba balamuthi. We find that homologs of genes involvedin metazoan multicellularity exist in several of these unicellularorganisms, including 1 encoding a membrane-associated guanylatekinase with an inverted arrangement of protein-protein interactiondomains (MAGI) in Capsaspora. In Metazoa, MAGI regulates tightjunctions involved in cell-cell communication. By phylogenomicanalyses of genes encoded in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes,we show that the choanoflagellates are the closest relativesof the Metazoa, followed by the Capsaspora and Ichthyosporealineages, although the branching order between the latter 2groups remains unclear. Understanding the function of "metazoan-specific"proteins we have identified in these protists will clarify theevolutionary steps that led to the emergence of the Metazoa.  相似文献
直翅目昆虫线粒体基因组研究进展   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
黄原  刘念  卢慧甍 《昆虫学报》2010,53(5):581-586
 本文总结了本实验室对40余种直翅目昆虫的线粒体基因组序列的研究方法和主要结果.直翅目线粒体基因组研究中最重要的发现包括:(1)在直翅目昆虫线粒体基因组中发现了3种基因排列次序.蝗亚目除蜢总科外都具有DK排列.蜢总科的变色乌蜢为KD 排列,与蝗亚目其他总科不同,而与螽亚目昆虫的排序方式相同.已测出的螽亚目大多数昆虫的KD 排列顺序与典型节肢动物的完全相同,但在黄脸油葫芦Teleogryllus emma发生了tRNAGlu,tRNASer和tRNAAsn的倒置;(2)在疑钩额螽Ruspolia dubia中发现了一种到目前为止具有最短控制区(70 bp)的线粒体基因组;(3)采用多种方法分析了昆虫A+T富集区存在的调控序列和二级结构特征,获得了昆虫A+T富集区保守序列的一致结构.采用Z曲线分析蝗虫的A+T富集区,表明也存在与原核生物复制起点类似的信号;(4)构建了30种蝗虫12S rRNA和16S rRNA的二级结构.在昆虫线粒体基因组非编码链中发现了一些类tRNA结构和tRNA异构体;(5)构建了基于线粒体基因组数据的直翅目昆虫主要亚科以上分类单元之间的系统发育关系.  相似文献
The phylogenetic positions of the 4 clades, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra, have been major issues in the recent discussion of basal relationships among placental mammals. However, despite considerable efforts these relationships, crucial to the understanding of eutherian evolution and biogeography, have remained essentially unresolved. Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria are generally joined into a common clade (Boreoeutheria), whereas the position of Afrotheria and Xenarthra relative to Boreoeutheria has been equivocal in spite of the use of comprehensive amounts of nuclear encoded sequences or the application of genome-level characters such as retroposons. The probable reason for this uncertainty is that the divergences took place long time ago and within a narrow temporal window, leaving only short common branches. With the aim of further examining basal eutherian relationships, we have collected conserved protein-coding sequences from 11 placental mammals, a marsupial and a bird, whose nuclear genomes have been largely sequenced. The length of the alignment of homologous sequences representing each individual species is 2,168,859 nt. This number of sites, representing 2840 protein-coding genes, exceeds by a considerable margin that of any previous study. The phylogenetic analysis joined Xenarthra and Afrotheria on a common branch, Atlantogenata. This topology was found to fit the data significantly better than the alternative trees.  相似文献
Phylogenomics reveal a robust fungal tree of life   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Our understanding of the tree of life (TOL) is still fragmentary. Until recently, molecular phylogeneticists have built trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and selected protein sequences, which, however, usually suffered from lack of support for the deeper branches and inconsistencies probably due to limited subsampling of the entire genome. Now, phylogenetic hypotheses can be based on the analysis of full genomes. We used available complete genome data as well as the eukaryote orthologous group (KOG) proteins to reconstruct with confidence basal branches of the fungal TOL. Phylogenetic analysis of a core of 531 KOGs shared among 21 fungal genomes, three animal genomes and one plant genome showed a single tree with high support resulting from four different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. The single tree that we inferred from our dataset showed excellent nodal support for each branch, suggesting that it reflects the true phylogenetic relationships of the species involved.  相似文献
动物系统发育和大规模测序:进展和问题   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
Phylogenomics, the inference of phylogenetic trees using genome-scale data, is becoming the rule for resolving difficult parts of the tree of life. Its promise resides in the large amount of information available, which should eliminate stochastic error. However, systematic error, which is due to limitations of reconstruction methods, is becoming more apparent. We will illustrate, using animal phylogeny as a case study, the three most efficient approaches to avoid the pitfalls of phylogenomics (1) using a dense taxon sampling, (2) using probabilistic methods with complex models of sequence evolution that more accurately detect multiple substitutions, and (3) removing the fastest evolving part of the data (e.g., species and positions). The analysis of a dataset of 55 animal species and 102 proteins (25712 amino acid positions) shows that standard site-homogeneous model inference is sensitive to long-branch attraction artifact, whereas the site-heterogeneous CAT model is less so. The latter model correctly locates three very fast evolving species, the appendicularian tunicate Oikopleura, the acoel Convoluta and the myxozoan Buddenbrockia. Overall, the resulting tree is in excellent agreement with the new animal phylogeny, confirming that "simple" organisms like platyhelminths and nematodes are not necessarily of basal emergence. This further emphasizes the importance of secondary simplification in animals, and for organismal evolution in general.  相似文献
The majority of proteins consist of multiple domains that are either repeated or combined in defined order. In this study, we survey the combination of protein domains defined at fold and fold superfamily levels in 185 genomes belonging to organisms that have been fully sequenced and introduce a method that reconstructs rooted phylogenomic trees from the content and arrangement of domains in proteins at a genomic level. We find that the majority of domain combinations were unique to Archaea, Bacteria, or Eukarya, suggesting most combinations originated after life had diversified. Domain repeat and domain repeat within multidomain proteins increased notably in eukaryotes, mainly at the expense of single-domain and domain-pair proteins. This increase was mostly confined to Metazoa. We also find an unbalanced sharing of domain combinations which suggests that Eukarya is more closely related to Bacteria than to Archaea, an observation that challenges the widely assumed eukaryote-archaebacterial sisterhood relationship. The occurrence and abundance of the molecular repertoire (interactome) of domain combinations was used to generate phylogenomic trees. These global interactome-based phylogenies described organismal histories satisfactorily, revealing the tripartite nature of life, and supporting controversial evolutionary patterns, such as the Coelomata hypothesis, the grouping of plants and animals, and the Gram-positive origin of bacteria. Results suggest strongly that the process of domain combination is not random but curved by evolution, rejecting the null hypothesis of domain modules combining in the absence of natural selection or an optimality criterion.  相似文献
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