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Plant synomones and host kairomones are known to guide the egg parasitoid Oomyzus gallerucae to its specific host, the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (= Pyrrhalta) (Muller) feeding upon elm leaves (Ulmus spp.). In this study, we investigated whether the activities of these plant synomones and kairomones are specific for the plant and herbivore species, respectively. Olfactometer and contact bioassays were used. In habitat location, O. gallerucae (Fonscolombe) is known to use synomones from Ulmus minor (Miller) that are induced by egg depositions of X. luteola. The attractiveness of such induced volatiles was shown to be specific both for the Ulmus species and the herbivore species depositing eggs. Neither leaves of U. glabra Hudson (= U. montana) carrying eggs of X. luteola nor leaves of U. minor (= U. campestris = U. procera) carrying eggs of the chrysomelid species Galeruca tanaceti L. emitted attractive synomones. O. gallerucae is also known to be attracted by volatile kairomones from faeces of X. luteola feeding on U. minor and to show prolonged antennal drumming when contacting substrates contaminated with these faeces. The kairomonal activity of the faeces was proved to be independent of the Ulmus species, since also faeces from elm leaf beetles feeding upon U. glabra emitted attractive volatiles. However, the faecal kairomones were specific for the herbivorous species, since faeces from a lepidopteran larva (Opisthograptis luteolata L.) feeding upon elm hardly elicited any antennal drumming in O. gallerucae. The egg parasitoid studied is known to recognize host eggs of X. luteola by contact kairomones extractable from the egg shell. O. gallerucae clearly differentiated between host eggs and eggs of another closely related chrysomelid species, Galerucella lineola L., as was shown by comparing duration of antennal drumming on host eggs and eggs of G. lineola.  相似文献
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A potentially important and understudied biological control agent in US agroecosystems is the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Red imported fire ants may be particularly important biological control agents because we can manipulate their abundance with changes in habitat complexity. The effect of habitat complexity on biological control by fire ants was determined using plots of collards intercropped with white clover (complex habitat) and simple collard monocrops. The most economically significant pests of collards are larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). Predation of DBM larvae by fire ants was more rapid and efficient in the intercrop than the monocrop. Red imported fire ants were 23% less abundant in the intercrop than the monocrop, however, suggesting that fire ants had a greater per capita effect on DBM survival in the complex habitat. Red imported fire ant predation of DBM larvae was significantly affected by larval density. Red imported fire ants also reduced the survival of leaf beetles, another economically significant pest taxa, by 45%. Furthermore, collard leaf damage tended to be inversely related to fire ant density and fire ants were more effective at reducing crop damage in the complex intercrop. Our study indicates the ability of red imported fire ants to be effective biological control agents and suggests that increasing habitat complexity can enhance red imported fire ant efficacy and herbivore control.  相似文献
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Abstract.  1. Plant quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic level. However, little attention has been paid to how changes in plant quality affect the performance of predators through trophic levels, and which herbivores or predators are affected more strongly by host-plant quality. The present study examined the effects of artificial cutting of willows on the performance of a willow leaf beetle ( Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting) and its predatory ladybird beetle ( Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope).
2. Laboratory experiments showed that performance (survival rate, developmental time, and adult mass) of the willow leaf beetle was higher when fed with leaves of cut willows than when fed with leaves of uncut willows. Performance (developmental time and adult mass) of the predatory ladybird was also improved when it was fed on the leaf beetle larvae that had been fed on leaves of cut willows, compared with those that had been fed on leaves of uncut willows. This indicates that a bottom-up cascade occurs in the tri-trophic system.
3. In a comparison of improved performance parameters between the leaf beetle and the ladybird, regenerated willows shortened the developmental time of the willow leaf beetle more than that of the ladybird. This indicates that the impacts of willow cutting on insect performance differ between the second and third trophic levels.  相似文献
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Performance of leaf beetle larvae on sympatric host and non-host plants   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Studies asking the ability of insects to utilize novel host plants often use novel hosts that are allopatric with the insect population under investigation. However, since the outcomes of species interactions are often site-specific, such studies cannot tell us whether a plant would actually be used by a given insect population if the plant grew sympatrically with it. We therefore performed a quantitative genetics experiment to analyse the performance of larvae of the leaf beetle Oreina elongata Suffrian (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae) on two host and three non-host plants, collected from a site where insects and plants co-occur in the Western Alps. When raised on the non-host Petasites albus (L.), larvae were able to survive equally well as on the two hosts, Adenostyles alliariae (Gouan) and Cirsium spinosissimum (L.), whereas they did not survive on the two other non-hosts, Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) and Rumex alpinus L. On P. albus, growth rate was slightly lower and development time slightly longer than on the two hosts. We found a genotype by environment interaction only for growth rate but not for development time and survival. However, the shape of the reaction norms of growth rates suggests that it is unlikely that selection could favour the inclusion of P. albus into the host range of the study population.  相似文献
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Many representatives of the beetle family Chrysomelidae exhibit a distinctive sexual dimorphism in the structure of adhesive tarsal setae. The present study demonstrates the influence of surface roughness on the friction force of Leptinotarsa decemlineata males and females. The maximum friction force of individual beetles was measured on epoxy resin surfaces (smooth and with asperities ranging from 0.3 to 12.0 microm) using a centrifugal force tester. On the smooth surface, no considerable differences between males and females were found, whereas on rough surfaces, females attached significantly (up to two times) stronger than males. Clawless beetles generated lower forces than intact ones, but demonstrated similar differences between males and females. The results indicate that the female adhesive system has its main functional trait in a stronger specialisation to rough plant surfaces whereas the adhesive system of males possess a certain trade-off between attachment to rough plant surfaces during locomotion on vegetation and to the smooth surface of the female elytra, while mating.  相似文献
7.
Abstract The Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Chrysomelidae: Paropsini), deposits batches of eggs on the leaf surfaces of its Eucalyptus hosts. Using a primary host of the beetle, Eucalyptus regnans , the aim of the present study was to examine whether oviposition site discrimination was occurring at the level of the individual leaf and what, if any, chemical attributes were involved in site selection. From field surveys, it was found that 55−65% of egg batches were laid in the leaf-tip zone, despite this zone representing only 5.6% of the total leaf-surface area. Chemical analyses of expanding leaves showed that the concentrations of three essential oil components and three surface waxes varied significantly between the leaf tip and remainder of the leaf. However, on plastic mimic leaves with uniform, non-foliar chemistry, eggs were still preferentially laid near 'leaf' tips. Hence, leaf essential oils and surface waxes need not be involved in oviposition site choice. Observations of ovipositing beetles showed that they wrapped their tarsi around the leaf margin, suggesting that the ability to grasp the edges of a leaf may explain the oviposition pattern observed.  相似文献
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叶甲科昆虫的定殖机制   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
程彬  孙晓玲  孔祥波  高长启 《生态学报》2010,30(14):3901-3911
在复杂的生态环境中,叶甲科昆虫利用寄主植物的挥发物作为嗅觉信号,并协同视觉信号共同作用以提高其远距离搜寻和定位寄主的效率。叶甲科昆虫也释放信息素来调节同种或者异种个体的行为反应;找到寄主植物后,叶子的形态学特性和化学组分的浓度等接触性因素就会影响叶甲科昆虫对寄主植物的最终选择。叶甲对上述这些信号物质的反应也受叶甲本身状态的影响,如生殖、滞育、饥饿、交配以及取食等。叶甲科昆虫对寄主植物的搜寻、辨识和接受、取食以及繁殖的过程受一种或多种因素协同影响。从嗅觉、视觉和触觉等方面对叶甲科昆虫的定殖机制做一综述。  相似文献
10.
We tested the influence of grazing intensity and effect of landscape complexity on grassland specialist and generalist beetles of three beetle families, i.e. Carabidae, Chrysomelidae, and Curculionidae, on extensively and intensively grazed cattle pastures in three regions of the Hungarian Great Plain. In every region we investigated seven pairs of grazed grasslands. On each field, samples were taken along two 95-m-long transects; one transect at the edge and the other one 50 m away from the edge in the grassland interior (altogether 84 transects). Carabids (Carabidae) were sampled using funnel traps for three 2-week sampling periods during spring and early summer. Leaf-beetles (Chrysomelidae) and weevils (Curculionidae) were surveyed by sweep netting in May and June 2003. Analysing the grazing intensity and landscape complexity effects on generalist and specialist beetles with linear mixed models, grazing effect was detected only on specialist leaf-beetle species richness with more species in the extensively grazed sites. Landscape complexity had contrasting effects on specialist and generalist species. Habitat generalists were more and negatively affected by increasing grassland coverage (reduced heterogeneity) than specialists. At species level analyses on four species out of 21, landscape effects were shown, which suggested that landscape composition might have strong effects on the species composition of the beetle assemblages. Our results suggest that conservation of biodiversity in agricultural systems (such as in managed Central European grasslands) requires a landscape perspective besides investigating management effects.  相似文献
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