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1.
Active fires are considered to be the key contributor to, and critical consequence of, climate change. Quantifying the occurrence frequency and regional variations in global active fires is significant for assessing carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and postfire ecological effects. Multiscale variations in fire occurrence frequencies have still never been fully investigated despite free access to global active fire products. We analyzed the occurrence frequencies of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) active fires at national, pan‐regional (tropics and extratropics) to global scales and at hourly, monthly, and annual scales during 2012–2017. The results revealed that the accumulated occurrence frequencies of VIIRS global active fires were up to 12,193 × 104, yet exhibiting slight fluctuations annually and with respect to the 2014–2016 El Niño event, especially during 2015. About 35.52% of VIIRS active fires occurred from July to September, particularly in August (13.06%), and typically between 10:00 and 13:00 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; 42.96%) and especially at 11:00 GMT (17.65%). The total counts conform to a bimodal pattern with peaks in 5°–11°N (18.01%) and 5°–18°S (32.46%), respectively, alongside a unimodal distribution in terms of longitudes between 15°E and 30°E (32.34%). Tropical annual average of active fire (1,496.81 × 104) accounted for 75.83%. Nearly 30% were counted in Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, and Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA). Fires typically occurred between June (or August) and October (or November) with far below‐average rainfall in these countries, while those in MSEA primarily occurred between February and April during the dry season. They were primarily observed between 00:00 and 02:00 GMT, between 12:00 and 14:00 within each Zone Time. We believed that VIIRS global active fires products are useful for developing fire detection algorithms, discriminating occurrence types and ignition causes via correlation analyses with physical geographic elements, and assessment of their potential impacts.  相似文献   
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As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body temperatures translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air temperature for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on temperature data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water temperature, while high air temperature is only stressful if water temperature is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water temperature may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected temperatures with the temperature threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern range limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores.  相似文献   
4.
ZnS:Mn nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical precipitation method and characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Capping agent (mercaptoethanol) concentrations used were 0 M, 0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.015 M, 0.025 M, 0.040 M, and 0.060 M, and resulted in nanoparticles sizes of 2.98 nm, 2.9 nm, 2.8 nm, 2.7 nm, 2.61 nm, 2.2 nm and 2.1 nm, respectively. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded by heating the sample exposed to UV‐radiation, at a fixed heating rate 1°C sec–1. The TL intensity initially increased with temperature, attained a peak value Im for a particular temperature, and then decreased with further increase in temperature. The peak TL intensity increased with decreasing nanoparticle size, whereas the temperature corresponding to the peak TL intensity decreased slightly with reducing nanocrystal size. As a consequence of increase in surface‐to‐volume ratio and increased carrier recombination rates, the TL intensity increased with decreasing nanoparticle size. It was found that, whereas activation energy slightly decreased with decreasing nanoparticle size, the frequency factor decreased significantly with reduction in nanoparticle size. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
圆蟾舌蛙鸣声特征分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为研究体型较小的蛙类的鸣声特征,2012年7~8月,采用录音机和指向性话筒,在野外录制51只雄性圆蟾舌蛙(Phrynoglossus martensii)鸣声并对应测量了录音个体的体重、体长及头宽等体征数据。雄性圆蟾舌蛙的体重为(1.26±0.55)g,体长为(21.04±2.57)mm,头宽为(6.76±0.75)mm。该种蛙可发出广告鸣声和争斗鸣声。广告鸣声为单音节鸣叫,主频(3 782.25±167.78)Hz,3 100~4 349 Hz;基频(1 519.69±70.60)Hz,1 057~1 765 Hz。广告鸣声主频和基频均与体重、体长、头宽呈显著负相关,而音节间隔与体重和头宽呈正相关(相关性分析)。争斗鸣声主频(3 752.64±174.47)Hz,(3 304~4 081)Hz;基频(1 674.88±79.88)Hz,1 367~1 870 Hz。与广告鸣声相比,争斗鸣声的基频显著增高(t=﹣5.374,df=56,P0.001),音节时长和音节间隔显著降低(P0.05),而主频在两种鸣声类型中无显著差异(t=0.436,df=56,P=0.665)(独立样本T检验)。结果表明,作为体型较小的蛙类,体型影响了圆蟾舌蛙的鸣声结构和类型。  相似文献   
6.
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is known to be prone to measurement error. Researchers have suggested excluding implausible energy reporters (IERs) of FFQ total energy when examining the relationship between a health outcome and FFQ‐reported intake to obtain less biased estimates of the effect of the error‐prone measure of exposure; however, the statistical properties of stratifying by IER status have not been studied. Under certain assumptions, including nondifferential error, we show that when stratifying by IER status, the attenuation of the estimated relative risk in the stratified models will be either greater or less in both strata (implausible and plausible reporters) than for the nonstratified model, contrary to the common belief that the attenuation will be less among plausible reporters and greater among IERs. Whether there is more or less attenuation depends on the pairwise correlations between true exposure, observed exposure, and the stratification variable. Thus exclusion of IERs is inadvisable but stratification by IER status can sometimes help. We also address the case of differential error. Examples from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study and simulations illustrate these results.  相似文献   
7.
Ecological diversification through divergent selection is thought to be a major force during the process of adaptive radiations. However, the large sizes and complexity of most radiations such as those of the cichlids in the African Great Lakes make it impossible to infer the exact evolutionary history of any population divergence event. The genus Alcolapia, a small cichlid lineage endemic to Lakes Magadi and Natron in East Africa, exhibits phenotypes similar to some of those found in cichlids of the radiations of the African Great Lakes. The simplicity within Alcolapia makes it an excellent model system to investigate ecological diversification and speciation. We used an integrated approach including population genomics based on RAD‐seq data, geometric morphometrics and stable isotope analyses to investigate the eco‐morphological diversification of tilapia in Lake Magadi and its satellite lake Little Magadi. Additionally, we reconstructed the demographic history of the species using coalescent simulations based on the joint site frequency spectrum. The population in Little Magadi has a characteristically upturned mouth—possibly an adaptation to feeding on prey from the water surface. Eco‐morphological differences between populations within Lake Magadi are more subtle, but are consistent with known ecological differences between its lagoons such as high concentrations of nitrogen attributable to extensive guano deposits in Rest of Magadi relative to Fish Springs Lagoon. All populations diverged simultaneously only about 1100 generations ago. Differences in levels of gene flow between populations and the effective population sizes have likely resulted in the inferred heterogeneous patterns of genome‐wide differentiation.  相似文献   
8.
Effects of two fin‐ray sampling methods on swimming performance, growth and survival were evaluated for hatchery‐reared sub‐adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Fish were subjected to either a notch removal treatment in which a small section was removed from an anterior marginal pectoral‐fin ray, or a full removal treatment in which an entire marginal pectoral‐fin ray was removed. Control fish did not have fin rays removed, but they were subjected to a sham operation. A modified 3230 l Brett‐type swim tunnel was used to evaluate 10 min critical station‐holding speeds (SCSH) of A. transmontanus, immediately after the fin ray biopsies were obtained with each method. Survival and growth were evaluated over a 6 month period for a separate group of fish subjected to the same biopsy methods. Mean ± s.e . 10 min SCSH were 108·0 ± 2·3, 110·0 ± 2·6 and 115·0 ± 3·5 cm s?1 for the notch removal group, full removal group and control group, respectively, and were not significantly different among treatments. Behavioural characteristics including tail‐beat frequency and time spent hunkering were also not significantly different among treatment groups swimming at the same speeds. There were no mortalities and relative growth was similar among treatment groups. Average biopsy time for the notch removal method was lower and the wounds appeared to heal more quickly compared with the full removal method.  相似文献   
9.
The CDKN1C gene encodes a cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor and is one of the key genes involved in the development of Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and cancer. In this study, using a direct sequencing approach based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at genomic DNA and cDNA levels, we show that CDKN1C exhibits monoallelic expression in all seven studied organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle and subcutaneous fat) in cattle. To investigate how methylation regulates imprinting of CDKN1C in cattle, allele‐specific methylation patterns in two putative differential methylation regions (DMRs), the CDKN1C DMR and KvDMR1, were analyzed in three tissues (liver, spleen and lung) using bisulfite sequencing PCR. Our results show that in the CDKN1C DMR both parental alleles were unmethylated in all three analyzed tissues. In contrast, KvDMR1 was differentially methylated between the two parental alleles in the same tissues. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the methylation level between the two parental alleles (< 0.01), confirming that this region is the DMR of KvDMR1 and that it may be correlated with CDKN1C imprinting.  相似文献   
10.
Bet‐hedging theory makes the counter‐intuitive prediction that, if juvenile survival is low and unpredictable, organisms should consistently reduce short‐term reproductive output to minimize the risk of reproductive failure in the long‐term. We investigated the long‐term reproductive output of an Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population and conformance to a bet‐hedging strategy of reproduction in an unpredictable but comparatively productive environment. Most females reproduced every year, even during periods of low precipitation and poor germination of food plants, and the mean percentage of reproducing females did not differ significantly on an annual basis. Although mean annual egg production (clutch size × clutch frequency) differed significantly among years, mean clutch size and mean clutch frequency remained relatively constant. During an El Niño year, mean annual egg production and mean annual clutch frequency were the highest ever reported for this species. Annual egg production was positively influenced by maternal body size but clutch size and clutch frequency were not. Our long‐term results confirm earlier conclusions based on short‐term research that desert tortoises have a bet‐hedging strategy of producing small clutches almost every year. The risk of long‐term reproductive failure is minimized in unpredictable environments, both through time by annually producing multiple small clutches over a long reproductive lifespan, even in years of low resource availability, and through space by depositing multiple annual clutches in different locations. The extraordinary annual reproductive output of this population appears to be the result of a typically high but unpredictable biomass of annual food plants at the site relative to tortoise habitat in dryer regions. Under the comparatively productive but unpredictable conditions, tortoises conform to predictions of a bet‐hedging strategy of reproduction with relatively small but consistent clutch sizes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 115 , 399–410.  相似文献   
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