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1.
Previously, it was believed that the lumbar intervertebral disc was innervated segmentally by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons via the sinuvertebral nerves. Recently, it was demonstrated using retrograde tracing methods that the lower disc (L5-L6) is innervated predominantly by upper (L1 and L2) DRG neurons via the sympathetic trunks. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of various pain-related molecules such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), isolectin B4 (IB4), P2X(3) receptor and vanniloid receptor 1 (VR1) in DRG neurons innervating the disc using a combination of immunostaining with the retrograde tracing method. This review outlines the distribution and immunocytochemical characterization of DRG neurons innervating the disc. Small nociceptive DRG neurons are classified into nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent neurons and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-dependent neurons and they can be distinguished by their reactivity for CGRP and IB4, respectively. We found that about half of the neurons innervating the disc were CGRP-immunoreactive (-ir), whilst, only 0.6% of the DRG neurons were IB4-positive, thereby indicating that NGF-dependent neurons are the main subpopulation which transmits and modulates nociceptive information from the disc. In addition, we also demonstrated P2X(3)- and VR1-immunoreactivity in DRG neurons innervating the disc and noted that they were mainly localized in NGF-dependent neurons. It is well known that NGF has sensitizing effects on DRG neurons, with a recent study demonstratng the presence of NGF in the painful intervertebral disc. Therefore, it is suggested that NGF is involved in the generation of discogenic low back pain.  相似文献
2.
Programmed cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is largely a process of destruction and failure of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and symptomatic IVD degeneration is thought to be one of the leading causes of morbidity or life quality deterioration in the elderly. To date, however, the mechanism of IVD degeneration is still not fully understood. Cellular loss from cell death in the process of IVD degeneration has long been confirmed and considered to contribute to ECM degradation, but the causes and the manners of IVD cell death remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD) is executed by an active cellular process and is extensively involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development and human degenerative diseases. Thus, the relationship between PCD and IVD degeneration has become a new research focus of interest in recent years. By reviewing the available literature concentrated on PCD in IVD and discussing the methodology of detecting PCD in IVD cells, its inducing factors, the relationship of cell death to ECM degradation, and the potential therapy for IVD degeneration by modulation of PCD, we conclude that IVD cells undergo PCD via different signal transduction pathways in response to different stimuli, that PCD may play a role in the process of IVD degeneration, and that modulation of PCD might be a potential therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.  相似文献
3.
Intervertebral disc (IVD) consists of a soft gelatinous material in its center, the nucleus pulposus (NP), bounded peripherally by fibrocartilage, annulus fibrosus (AF). Despite the number of patients with IVD degeneration, gene expression analysis has not been undertaken in NP and therefore little is known about the molecular markers expressed in NP. Here, we undertook a microarray screen in NP with the other nine tissues to identify the specific cell surface markers for NP. Five membrane associating molecules out of 10,490 genes were identified as highly expressing genes in NP compared with the other tissues. Among them, we identified CD24, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor protein as a cell surface marker for NP. CD24 expression was also detected in the herniated NP and chordoma, a malignant primary tumor derived from notochordal cells, while it was absent in chondrosarcoma. Therefore, CD24 is a molecular marker for NP as well as the diseases of IVD.  相似文献
4.
Circadian variation in human stature   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The aim of this study was to monitor the creep in stature due to compression and its recovery over 24 hr in eight adult males. Measurements of stature were made at nine times during the 24-hr cycle using a purpose built metal frame tilted 5 degrees to the vertical. Accessories for standardization of posture and prevention of unwanted muscular tension included a series of microswitches on the frame, cross-beams for controlling spinal curvatures, slit spectacles used in conjunction with a mirror for proper head alignment. A dead load BAYE micrometer recorded stature to 0.01 mm. A significant circadian rhythm was established, the trough to peak variation being 19.3 mm or 1.1% of overall stature. Peak stature was measured at 0730 on awakening and the trough occurred at midnight before assuming a recumbent posture for sleep. Altogether 71% of the height gained during the night was achieved in the first half of the night's sleep. Over 50% of the height loss in a day was lost within the first hour of rising, 80% being lost within 3 hr of arising: the rate of creep decelerated throughout the remainder of the waking day. It is concluded that the rate of change in creep throughout the day varies, being greatest in the morning whilst distension is most pronounced in the early hours of sleep.  相似文献
5.
We have assessed the utility of an intracellular fluorochrome, 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), as a tracking label for human intervertebral disc cells in vitro. Although 5 JJIM provides adequate intracellular labeling for whole cell fluorescent microscopic identification of labeled cells, 20 JJLM was preferable for immunocytochemical localization of paraffin embedded labeled cells. Electron dense vesicles are seen at the ultra-structural level in labeled cells. Discrete vesicular labeling can also be observed in whole cell mounts viewed with fluorescence microscopy. Whole cells retain good label for 6 weeks. CFSE labeling is relatively easy, nontoxic to cells and nonradiocactive. Initial optimization of dose with specific cells types is recommended when confirmation of positive immunocytochemistry is needed for tissue engineering studies.  相似文献
6.
An improved staining method for intervertebral disc tissue   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
The objective of this study was to design a new staining procedure for human disc tissue for visualizing both collagen and proteoglycan-matrix components on the same histology section. Weigert's hematoxylin, alcian blue and picrosirius red were combined to produce distinctive staining of collagen (red), proteoglycans (blue) and cellular elements of the intervertebral disc. This novel stain reveals sharp details of collagen composition in the perilacunar, territorial and intraterritorial extracellular matrix, and concomitantly demonstrates the presence of proteoglycan accumulations around cells in the lacunar spaces and in the extracellular matrix. These details reveal variations within the tissue that would not be apparent with routine stains.  相似文献
7.
Molecular consequences of long-term deformation and altered mechanical loading of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue in scoliosis have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that histological disc degeneration is faster in scoliosis than in normal ageing and that this is reflected by an altered gene expression profile. A semiquantitative histodegeneration score (HDS) revealed significantly enhanced degeneration in scoliosis (HDS 5.3) versus age-matched control IVDs (HDS 2.25; p = 0.001). Gene expression analysis by cDNA array and RT-PCR demonstrated higher mRNA levels for extracellular-matrix molecules like aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, lumican, chondromodulin, and COL2A1 in scoliotic discs versus normal discs of identical degeneration score. No differences were evident for catabolic molecules like MMP3, MMP13, MMP17, and TIMP1. In sum, morphologic disc degeneration was accelerated by about 2 decades in scoliosis versus physiological ageing and developed against a background of stronger anabolic matrix metabolism at younger age or in response to the altered mechanical environment of the tissue.  相似文献
8.
正常与退变椎间盘髓核和纤维环中生化成份的研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
 本工作测定了椎间盘的髓核和纤维环中的生化成份,结果提示在退变的椎间盘中,糖醛酸,总己糖胺、半乳糖胺均明显下降,而羟脯氨酸的含量明显增加。在退变的纤维环中尚有组成硫酸角质素的主要成份葡萄糖胺量的明显下降。在退变的髓核和纤维环中,总蛋白质含量呈增加趋势,水的含量呈下降趋势。提示退变椎间盘中蛋白多糖含量降低,组成改变及胶原蛋白的增加可能是诱发椎间盘突出症的物质基础。  相似文献
9.
Excessive apoptosis of disc cells is believed to play an important role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. It has been shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is involved in the failure of disc matrix by suppressing the synthesis of matrix components and stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. However, whether IL-1β induces disc cell apoptosis is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-1β on the apoptosis of rat annular cells cultured with or without serum supplement. First-passage rat annular cells were cultured with 0% or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplement and stimulated with 0, 10, 20 or 50 ng/ml IL-1β for 12, 24 or 48 h. Apoptotic incidences were quantified by flow cytometry, morphologic changes in apoptotic cells were visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining and phase-contrast microscopy, and caspase-3 activity was also determined. When rat annular cells were cultured with 10% FBS supplement, no significant changes in apoptotic incidences, apoptotic morphology and caspase-3 activity were observed even when cells were stimulated with 50 ng/ml IL-1β for 48 h. In contrast, serum deprivation for 24 h led to an increase in apoptotic incidences, the number of apoptotic nuclei and caspase-3 activity, and IL-1β significantly increased the effects of serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that IL-1β alone is not a sufficient stimulus to induce disc cell apoptosis and that in order to suppress disc cell apoptosis, improving the nutrient supply to the disc may be more effective than antagonizing the adverse effects of IL-1β.  相似文献
10.
目的:研究人工椎间盘力学结构特点,探讨改进设计优化结构的依据。方法:在用有限元法进行正压下力学分析的基础上,对模型不同构件进行拓扑优化分析。结果:获得正压下假体模型主应力,作用力及支座反力的特点;指明拓扑优化的几何区域。结论:人工椎间盘的设计改进要在相关力学分析的基础上进行;通过优化分析既指明了假体结构上的重要区域,也显示出模型不同空间位置的可优化程度,为改进设计提供初步参考依据。有限元优化设计是假体研究,设计中经济有效的辅助方法。  相似文献
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