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地西泮和戊巴比妥钠对两种小鼠镇静催眠作用强度的观察   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的:观察地西泮和戊巴比妥纳对不同种属小鼠自主活动和睡眠效应的影响,为筛选影响中枢神经系统功能的药物提供可参考的选择动物的依据。方法:分别取昆明种和ICR小鼠各40只,设对照组和地西泮给药组,每组20只,给药组ig地西泮4mg/kg,对照组给生理盐水,连续3天,末次给药后45分钟测定小鼠自主活动。另取两种小鼠各20只,分别ip戊巴比妥钠50mg/kg,观察两种小鼠的睡眠情况,记录潜伏期和睡眠时间。结果:ICR小鼠ig地西泮后,表现明显的镇静作用,自主活动的次数和对照组比较明显减少,P〈0.01;而昆明种小鼠给相同剂量的地西泮,小鼠自主活动的次数减少不明显,P〉0.05。昆明种和ICR小鼠同样ip阈上剂量的戊巴比妥钠,两者在睡眠潜伏期上无明显差异,但在睡眠时间上,则ICR小鼠的睡眠时间明显长于昆明种小鼠,P〈0.01。结论:ICR小鼠对中枢抑制药的反应性更好,适合于这类药物的筛选,尤其对作用相对较弱的中药制剂,可能提高筛选的阳性率。  相似文献
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Changes in the magnitude and direction of physiological measures (EMG, EEG, temperature, etc.) are not strongly related to the reduction of clinical symptoms in biofeedback therapy. Previously, nonspecified perceptual, cognitive, and emotional factors related to threat perception (Wickramasekera, 1979, 1988, 1998) may account for the bulk of the variance in the reduction of clinical symptoms. The mean magnitude of these previously nonspecified or placebo factors is closer to 70% whenboththe therapist and patient believe in the efficacy of the therapy. This powerful placebo effect is hypothesized to be anelicitedconditioned response (Wickramasekera, 1977a, 1977c, 1980, 1985) based on the memory of prior healings. These memories of healing are more resistant to extinction if originally acquired on a partial rather than continuous reinforcement schedule. High and low hypnotic ability in interaction with threat perception (negative affect) is hypothesized to contribute to both the production and reduction of clinical symptoms. High and low hypnotic ability respectively are hypothesized to be related to dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system. Biofeedback is hypothesized to be most effective for reducing clinical symptoms in people of low to moderate hypnotic ability. For people high in trait hypnotic ability, training in self-hypnosis or other instructional procedures (e.g., autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, mediation, CBT, etc.) will produce the most rapid reduction in clinical symptoms.  相似文献
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This study examined the fundamental question, whether verbal memory processing in hypnosis and in the waking state is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Seven right-handed volunteers (25.4 years, sd 3.1) with high-hypnotic susceptibility scores were PET-scanned while encoding/retrieving word associations either in hypnosis or in the waking state. Word-pairs were visually presented and highly imaginable, but not semantically related (e.g. monkey-street). The presentation of pseudo-words served as a reference condition. An emission scan was recorded after each intravenous administration of O-15 water. Encoding under hypnosis was associated with more pronounced bilateral activations in the occipital cortex and the prefrontal areas as compared to learning in the waking state. During memory retrieval of word-pairs which had been previously learned under hypnosis, activations were found in the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. Under both experimental conditions precuneus and prefrontal cortex showed a consistent bilateral activation which was most distinct when the learning had taken place under hypnosis. In order to further analyze the effect of hypnosis on imagery-mediated learning, we administered sets of high-imagery word-pairs and sets of abstract words. In the first experimental condition word-pair associations were presented visually. In the second condition it was found that highly hypnotisable persons recalled significantly more high-imagery words under hypnosis as compared to low-hypnotisables both in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, high-imagery words were also better recalled by the highly hypnotisable subjects during the non-hypnotic condition. The memory effect was consistently present under both, immediate and delayed recall conditions. Taken together, the findings advance our understanding of the neural representation that underlies hypnosis and the neuropsychological correlates of hypnotic susceptibility.  相似文献
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In the aftermath of the human genome project, genotyping is fast becoming an affordable and technologically viable complement to phenotyping. Whereas attempts to characterize hypnotic responsiveness have been largely phenomenological, data emanating from exploratory genetic data may offer supplementary insights into the genetic bases of hypnotizability. We outline our genetic and neuroimaging findings and discuss potential implications to top-down control systems. These results may explain individual differences in hypnotizability and propose new ideas for studying the influence of suggestion on neural systems.  相似文献
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Brink  Nicholas E. 《Dreaming》2005,15(1):58
In this article I review the book, "Cognitive Therapy and Dreams" (see record 2004-00029-000). I came across this book as I was recently searching psychological abstracts for dreams and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and for hypnosis and CBT. Of the 9 references I found on dreams and CBT, all were in one issue of the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (Vol. 16, No. 1). I read a good number of the hypnosis-CBT articles and books, and all were written to integrate CBT into the field of hypnosis. Conversely, the dream articles integrating dream work and CBT were written by a range of people, some with a primary interest in dreams, but some with a more central interest in cognitive therapy. Apparently, a few cognitive-behavioral therapists and researchers have taken some interest in dream work, whereas the hypnosis interest in CBT continues mostly outside the domain of CBT. The collection of the nine articles published in the journal was an impressive enough accomplishment that eight articles of this collection plus four additional articles are now published in this book. The fact that these articles are now in a book may encourage researchers to perform the necessary therapy outcome research to validate the integration of dream work and CBT. The book adds significantly to the journal by drawing a distinction between objectivist approaches (Part II) and constructivist approaches (Part III), a distinction that unifies the articles in this book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献
6.
An analogue study involving two experiments was conducted to test the initial carryover effects of hypnosis, meditation, and relaxation upon self-reports of awareness. In the first experiment, concentrative meditators reported fewer nonsensorial events than controls. In the second experiment, concentrative meditators again reported fewer nonsensorial events, but covariate analysis and pretest/posttest comparisons revealed that it was the controls who had changed, increasing their nonsensorial reports. In addition, the relaxation group increased its reports of somatic awareness. Results were discussed in terms of the effects of performance demands and the possibility that meditation and hypnosis might be able to disinhibit awareness processes otherwise inhibited by normal daily routines.This article represents in part findings from a masters thesis completed at Appalachian State University, Donald L. Clark, Ph.D., Director, and a doctoral dissertation completed at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, David P. Rogers, Ph.D., and George S. Welsh, Ph.D., Co-Directors. The research was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid of Research from Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, with additional monies from the Smith Fund for graduate research at the University of North Carolina. Thanks go to Michelle Batchelder, Elizabeth Barbee, Lisa Barboun, Susan Durham, Lee Earl, Elizabeth Evans, Pam Gilmore, Sally Hall, Willian Hatch, Anne Mahaffie, Sally Parker, Lee Pusser, Susan Roach, Jennifer Rosenbaum, Skip Salguerro, Jeannette Smith, Michael Smith, Sylvia Sutton, and Lourdes Vinuales for their help in conducting the second experiment, with special thanks also to Susan Woodard (Experiment 1) and Alisa Huffman and Melanie Thackston (Experiment 2) for their help in coding the data. Helpful comments were made by Arthur N. Wiens, Ruth G. Matarazzo, Mary Lawrence Cawthon, W. Grant Dahlstrom, and Aija Ozolins on earlier drafts of this article.  相似文献
7.
目的:探讨催眠与气功的结合与创新。方法:从阐述催眠疗法产生和与气功疗法结合时中国的社会历史文化背景入手,分析了催眠和气功的相关性和各自的利弊。结果:催眠与气功结合具有可行性、必要性和必然性,阐述了低阻抗意念导入疗法(Low Resistance Thought Induction Psychotherapy,TIP)对二者结合的内容、特点、和互补性。结论:低阻抗意念导入疗法将催眠与气功进行了完美的结合与创新。  相似文献
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To categorize four types of sleep- and non-sleep-related hallucinations experienced by normal people and classify ghost or ghost-like stories by these categories. A total of 183 reliable tales of ghosts [41 from “Tohno Monogatari” (Tohno Folktales) and 142 from “Nihon Kaidan Shu” (Ghosts Tales of Japan)] are classified into hallucinations that are sleep-related hallucinations [hypnagogic hallucination-like (HyH) and REM sleep behavior disorder or somnambulism-like (RBDS) tales] and sleep-unrelated [vivid hallucination-like (VH) and highway hypnosis-like (HHy) tales] according to the criteria. Sixty to 70% of these tales can be classified into these four types of hallucinations. Further, sleep-related hallucinations increased from 17.0% to 36.6% in about 40 years. Our criteria will be useful to classify hallucinations experienced by normal people and to elucidate the mechanisms of these kinds of hallucinations experienced in neurodegenerative or psychological disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献
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