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1.
扎龙湿地丹顶鹤和白枕鹤求偶期觅食生境对比分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
在2003~2004年3~4月,利用定点观察法、GPS定位法、样方法、因子测定法,对扎龙保护区繁殖的丹顶鹤和白枕鹤求偶期的觅食生境进行了对比研究.结果表明,在扎龙湿地,求偶期丹顶鹤与白枕鹤对觅食生境的选择具有显著差异.丹顶鹤觅食生境比较单一,主要集中水域觅食(如芦苇沼泽),微生境选择以食物因素为主,其次是隐蔽因素、水因素和标识因素;白枕鹤觅食生境比较多样化,主要集中于陆地(如苔草沼泽、农田和火烧地),微生境选择要求严格,以“有效食物”因素为主,干扰因素和水因素是次要因素.  相似文献
2.
采用直接观察法和痕迹检验法对贺兰山岩羊夏季取食和卧息生境选择进行研究.结果表明,夏季岩羊偏好的取食地位于海拔高度1 600~2 000 m的山地疏林草原带,地形为平滑起伏的坡、明显断裂的坡和悬崖,以灰榆和山杨为优势乔木或无树,乔木矮小稀疏且距离远,接近低矮但密度较大的灌木,食物较多,位于<30°和>35°半阴半阳坡的下坡位,接近水源,人为干扰距离500~1 000 m,距裸岩2~5 m,隐蔽级25%~75%;夏季岩羊偏好的卧息地具有位于海拔高度1 600~2 000 m和>3 000 m的山地疏林草原带及亚高山灌丛和草甸带,地形为明显断裂的坡和悬崖,以灰榆和山杨为优势乔木或无树,乔木和灌木均矮小稀疏且距离较远,食物较少,位于>35°阴坡的上坡位,接近水源,人为干扰距离远,接近裸岩,隐蔽程度低.岩羊的取食和卧息生境在乔木高度和距水源距离上差异不显著(P > 0.05),而其余生态因子均有显著差异(P < 0.05).与取食生境相比,岩羊选择的卧息生境具有乔木稀疏且距离较远、灌木较少、低矮且距离较远、食物丰富度低、坡度大、远离人为干扰、接近裸岩和隐蔽程度低的特征.逐步判别分析表明,食物丰富度、灌木高度、距水源距离、隐蔽级、灌木密度、灌木距离、乔木高度和乔木距离8个生态因子可以区分取食样方与任意样方,正确判别率为85.8%;而区分卧息样方与任意样方时,距水源距离、灌木高度、距裸岩距离、人为干扰距离、食物丰富度、灌木密度和灌木距离共7个生态因子发挥作用,正确判别率为89.1%.  相似文献
3.
海南坡鹿对采食场地及食物的选择   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
2001年10月至2002年9月在海南大田国家级自然保护区,采用直接观察法和采食痕迹估计法对海南坡鹿(Cenrus eldi hainanus)的食性进行了研究.共记录取食地1273个,其中旱季748个,雨季525个.海南坡鹿取食植物234种,其中木本植物71种,草本植物161种,蕨类植物2种.其中取食频率超过0.01%的有76种,取食频率占总取食频率的81.85%.无论旱季和雨季坡鹿对采食场地都具有明显的选择性(旱季X2=21.476,P=0.000 7;雨季X2=19.882,P=0.001 3;df=5).尽管旱季坡鹿更多地选择在低平地热带草原生境中采食、雨季则喜欢季雨林,但是它们选择采食场地的季节性差异没有达到显著的水平(X2=9.447,P=0.092 5,df=5).坡鹿对植物种类的选择存在季节性差异,旱季喜欢采食的植物种类比雨季更多(30种vs.18种),采食的木本植物种类的比例也高于雨季(14种vs.6种).  相似文献
4.
鄱阳湖越冬白鹤觅食地特征分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
2008年11月至2009年3月,采用样线法、样方法和因子分析法对鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区越冬白鹤(Grus leucogranus)觅食地特征进行了研究。结果表明,白鹤在保护区的分布具有时空动态性,主要受水位和食物的控制;白鹤对不同类型觅食地具有选择性(P<0.05),对沉水植物型觅食地,即以苦草(Vallisneria natans)、黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)为主的沉水植物型生境利用度最大;白鹤各型觅食地各因子的方差分析表明,植被因子具有极显著差异(P<0.001),基底因子和掘食因子具有显著差异(P<0.05);因子分析表明,觅食地选择以取食效率因子为主,其次是基底因子和食物丰富度因子。  相似文献
5.
The trophic and spatial interrelationships between a native ( Galaxias vulguris Stokell, Galaxiidae) and an exotic ( Salmo trutta L., Salmonidae) fish species were investigated over a 24-h period in a New Zealand stream. Interspecific overlap in feeding was greatest at dusk and dawn, as G. vulgaris fed primarily from dusk to post-dawn and S. trutta fed primarily from pre-dawn to post-dusk. Both species fed mainly on benthic and drifting aquatic invertebrates, with larval Deleatidium (Ephemeroptera). Hydora (Coleoptera) and Chironomidae (Diptera) being their preferred prey, although Trichoptera imagos were also preferred by S. trutta . Both species were found primarily in runs and riffles with G. vulgaris occupying slightly shallower (≤0.3 m) and faster (0.3–0.7 m s1) waters than did S. trutta (≤0.5 m deep and 0.2–0.4 m s−1 water velocity). We suggest that these rather subtle interspecifc differences in die1 feeding periodicities, diets and microdistributions play a part in lessening the interaction between co-occurring populations of G. wlguris and S. trutta .  相似文献
6.
内蒙古达赉湖地区蒙原羚冬季采食生境选择   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
蒙原羚是欧亚大陆温带草原生态系统中的特有物种和数量最多的有蹄类动物。2010年11月—2011年1月,在内蒙古达赉湖地区开展了蒙原羚冬季采食生境选择研究。结果表明:蒙原羚冬季选择利用雪深<6cm,地上生物量>50g.m-2,距围栏1000~2000m,植被高度>20cm,植被盖度>40%,隐蔽条件(可视距离)3000~4000m,到居民点距离>2000m,距家畜>2000m,坡度<20°,中上坡位,针茅(Stipa spp.)和羊草(Aneurolepidium chinnenses)等植被类型的生境采食;生境因子综合影响蒙原羚的冬季采食生境选择,依照贡献值的大小依次为到围栏距离、地上生物量、雪深和隐蔽条件。逐步判别分析表明,由这4个变量构成的判别方程在对蒙原羚采食样方进行区分时,正确判别率为82.1%。因此,建立合理的围栏管理制度、提高可利用食物量等是蒙原羚保护的关键。  相似文献
7.
Six lower order streams in the south‐west of Colombia were sampled on a monthly basis in order to determine the status of Trichomycterus species in relation to their food supply (macroinvertebrates), and physico‐chemical habitat. Fishes were sampled by electrofishing and samples taken for dietary analysis. Macroinvertebrates were collected using a Surber sampler. Trichomycterus spp. populations were present in all streams in habitats ranging from soft to hard substrata and from relatively stagnant waters to fast flowing streams. The average density of the fishes ranged from 0·06 to 1·14 individuals m−2 with peaks in population corresponding to recruitment of individuals of <1 g. Trichomycterus spp. were found to be benthic carnivores with a diet mostly of aquatic insects. The index of relative importance for the dietary items was 35·0, 10·5, 1·9 and 7·8% for Chironomidae, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera and Oligochaeta respectively. Combined with physical habitat data, ordinations of fishes and macroinvertebrate data suggested that differences in abundance among sites were driven by stream size and flow regime, indicating dominance of the physical habitat, although a high correlation between Trichomycterus spp. and Chironomidae abundances ( r  = 0·81, P  = 0·049) was also recorded.  相似文献
8.
Feeding activity of migrating wild Atlantic salmon smolts was investigated in different types of tributaries of the River Teno, northernmost Finland. General feeding activity and the amount of surface prey in the stomachs were correlated inversely with proportion of habitats with high water velocity in the tributaries.  相似文献
9.
Howlers (Alouatta spp.) spend more than half of the daytime resting and their diet consists predominantly of leaves. Associated with a general strategy of energy conservation, their positional behavior is characterized by quadrupedalism as the major locomotor mode, and sitting as the most common resting and feeding posture. However, researchers have sparse information on the degree to which age-sex classes fit the generic trends and the influence of habitat structure on them. We compare the activity budget, dietary composition, and positional behavior by age-sex or age classes in a group of black-and-gold howlers (Alouatta caraya) in a small orchard forest. We collected 26,474 behavioral records via instantaneous scan sampling over 1 yr. The main activity was resting (56%) and the diet comprised mainly leaves (82%); sitting was the most adopted feeding (61%) and resting (52%) posture, and walking was the most prevalent locomotor mode (38%). There are age-sex differences for all major behaviors. Whereas resting tended to increase with body size, moving decreased. We observed no difference in the consumption of major plant parts. There were ontogenetic differences in most positional behaviors. Sitting increased from infants to adults during feeding, whereas the opposite occurred for bridging and hanging. During resting, infants curled more and lay less than the other classes did, whereas adults engaged in more sitting. Adults and subadults walked more than individuals of other ages did; infants climbed and bridged more than others did; and, there were opposing trends in leaping and descending. Habitat structure is a partial explanation of the locomotor behavior of black-and-gold howlers.  相似文献
10.
Stream salmonids choose foraging locations to maximize the energy benefit of foraging within the constraints of size-mediated dominance hierarchies and predation risk. But, because stream habitats are temporally variable, fish must use a search process to monitor changing habitat conditions as a means of locating potentially-better foraging locations. I explored the cues used by the cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki clarki, when searching for food at the pool scale by artificially increasing prey availability at different locations by using special feeders and by manipulating pool velocities. Behavior of individually marked fish was monitored from stream bank platforms under unmanipulated control conditions and under seven experimental sets of conditions involving different combinations of feeder location and velocity manipulation. Under natural conditions fish elected to forage in the deepest (>50 cm), fastest (0.10–0.25 m s−1) locations and within 1 m of structure cover, but would readily move to shallower (<30 cm) water away from cover if velocities were manipulated to be highest there. Although fish did not locate feeders unless they were placed in high-velocity areas, when high velocity was provided fish would move into very shallow water (<20 cm) if prey were delivered there. Responses of individual trout to manipulations indicated that water velocity was the main physical cue used by fish to decide where to forage, and that fish could also learn about new food sources by observing conspecifics. Overall, results indicated fish were not “perfect searchers” that could quickly locate new food resources over short time scales, even when the new resources were within a few meters of the fish’s normal foraging location. When given the correct cues, however, fish could detect new food sources and defend them against subordinate fish. Movement of new fish into and out of the study pools during the ten-day observation period was common, consistent with the idea that trout used movement as a means of exploring and learning about habitat conditions at the reach scale.  相似文献
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