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1.
 The isotope enrichment ɛ* of 13C between tooth enamel of large ruminant mammals and their diet is 14.1 ± 0.5‰. This value was obtained by analyzing both the dental enamel of a variety of wild and captive mammals and the vegetation that comprised their foodstuffs. This isotope enrichment factor applies to a wide variety of ruminant mammals. Non-ruminant ungulates have a similar isotope enrichment, although our data cannot determine if it is significantly different. We also found a 13C isotope enrichment ɛ* of 3.1 ± 0.7‰ for horn relative to diet, and 11.1 ± 0.8‰ for enamel relative to horn for ruminant mammals. Tooth enamel is a faithful recorder of diet. Its isotopic composition can be used to track changes in the isotopic composition of the atmosphere, determine the fraction of C3 or C4 biomass in diets of modern or fossil mammals, distinguish between mammals using different subpathways of C4 photosynthesis,and identify those mammals whose diet is derived from closed-canopy habitats. Received: 1 July 1998 / Accepted: 9 February 1999  相似文献
2.
湖北“郧县人”化石地层的ESR测年研究   总被引:15,自引:6,他引:9  
本报道用电子自旋共振法测定与郧县人颅骨同层的9个哺乳动物牙釉质化石年龄的结果。其平均值为58.1±9.3万年,对被测样检验了其对铀的封闭性,采用指数函数拟合与铀早期加入模型计算年龄,讨论了测年中可能存在的系统误差。  相似文献
3.
The Structural Biology of the Developing Dental Enamel Matrix   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
The biomineralization of the dental enamel matrix with a carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral generates one of the most remarkable examples of a vertebrate mineralized tissue. Recent advances in the molecular biology of ameloblast gene products have now revealed the primary structures of the principal proteins involved in this extracellular mineralizing system, amelogenins, tuftelins, ameloblastins, enamelins, and proteinases, but details of their secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, their interactions with other matrix and or cell surface proteins, and their functional role in dental enamel matrix mineralization are still largely unknown. This paper reviews our current knowledge of these molecules, the probable molecular structure of the enamel matrix, and the functional role of these extracellular matrix proteins. Recent studies on the major structural role played by the amelogenin proteins are discussed, and some new data on synthetic amelogenin matrices are reviewed.  相似文献
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Interaction between the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin and ameloblastin   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Enamel matrix consists of amelogenin and non-amelogenins. Though amelogenin is not involved in nucleation of minerals, the enamel mineralization is impaired when amelogenin or other matrix protein (ameloblastin/enamelin) genes are mutated. We hypothesize that amelogenin may promote enamel mineralization by interacting with the calcium-binding matrix proteins. Specific binding of amelogenin to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), GlcNAc-mimicking peptides (GMps), and their carrier proteins and the identification of amelogenin-trityrosyl-motif-peptide (ATMP) as a GlcNAc/GMp-binding domain in amelogenin favor the hypothesis. This study tested the interaction of amelogenin with ameloblastin, a carrier of GMp sequence at intermittent sites. Neither GlcNAc nor sialic acids were identified in the recombinant-ameloblastin. Amelogenin bound to recombinant-ameloblastin in both Western blots and in ELISA. More specifically, [(3)H]ATMP bound to both recombinant and native ameloblastins. Dosimetry and Scatchard analyses showed the specific interaction between ATMP and ameloblastin, suggesting that amelogenin may interact with ameloblastin to form a heteromolecular assembly.  相似文献
6.
Identification of early microbial colonizers in human dental biofilm   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
AIMS: To elucidate the first colonizers within in vivo dental biofilm and to establish potential population shifts that occur during the early phases of biofilm formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 'checkerboard' DNA-DNA hybridization assay was employed to identify 40 different bacterial strains. Dental biofilm samples were collected from 15 healthy subjects, 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after tooth cleaning and the composition of these samples was compared with that of whole saliva collected from the same individuals. The bacterial distribution in biofilm samples was distinct from that in saliva, confirming the selectivity of the adhesion process. In the very early stages, the predominant tooth colonizers were found to be Actinomyces species. The relative proportion of streptococci, in particular Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis, increased at the expense of Actinomyces species between 2 and 6 h while the absolute level of Actinomyces remained unaltered. Periodontal pathogens such as Tannerella forsythensis(Bacteroides forsythus), Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola as well as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were present in extremely low levels at all the examined time intervals in this healthy group of subjects. CONCLUSION: The data provide a detailed insight into the bacterial population shifts occurring within the first few hours of biofilm formation and show that the early colonizers of the tooth surface predominantly consist of beneficial micro-organisms. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The early colonizers of dental plaque are of great importance in the succession stages of biofilm formation and its overall effect on the oral health of the host.  相似文献
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Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of inherited disorders with defective tooth enamel formation caused by various gene mutations. One of the mutations substitutes a cytidine to adenine in exon 6 of the X-chromosomal amelogenin gene, which results in a proline to threonine change in the expressed amelogenin. This transformation is four amino acids N terminal to the proteinase cleavage site in amelogenin for enamel matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20), also known as enamelysin. MMP-20 effects the release of tyrosine rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) from amelogenin. This study evaluated the rate MMP-20 hydrolyzes the putative mutated amelogenin cleavage site. The proteolytic site was modeled as a substrate by two synthetic peptides, P1 (SYGYEPMGGWLHHQ) and M1 (SYGYETMGGWLHHQ), selected from residue 36-49 of the amino acid sequence for amelogenin and the respective X-linked amelogenin mutant. Recombinant metalloproteinase-20 (rMMP-20) was used to digest the oligopeptides and the truncated peptides were separated by reversed phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that both peptides are cleaved between tryptophan and leucine, matching the TRAP cutting site found in tooth enamel. However, the apparent first order rate of digestion of the mutation containing peptide by rMMP-20 was approximately 25 times slower than that of the non-mutated peptide. This study suggests that the reduced rate of TRAP formation due to a single amino acid substitution may alter enamel formation and consequently result in amelogenesis imperfecta.  相似文献
9.
The dentino-enamel junction (DEJ) constitutes a structurally unique interphase uniting two mineralized tissues with very different matrix composition and physical properties. Its excellent biomechanical properties have drawn interest as a biomimetic model for joining dissimilar materials. In order to characterize the functional width of the DEJ, nanoscratching experiments were performed on human third molars. Friction coefficients of enamel, of dentin, and at the DEJ were obtained with a nanoscratch tester attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM). Normal loads in the range of 50 to 600 microN were applied to a spherical diamond indenter (r = 10 microm), which was driven 10 microm across the sample surface, recording the lateral force. Imaging with an AFM facilitated exact positioning of the scratches. The friction coefficient of intertubular dentin was 0.31 +/- 0.05, significantly above the coefficient of enamel of 0.14 +/- 0.02. The increased friction of dentin is attributed to the higher content of organic phases. Scratches performed across the interphase between enamel and dentin showed a sharp monotonic change in the friction coefficient. The average width of the slope between the friction coefficients of dentin and enamel was 2.0 +/- 1.1 microm and is assumed to represent the functional width of the dentino-enamel junction. The effect of the scalloped structure of the DEJ on its functional width as determined by mechanical testing is discussed.  相似文献
10.
扫描电镜分析牙齿釉质结构方法的讨论   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
通过扫描电镜对大熊猫牙齿釉质结构的三维观察与比较,结果表明:在同一枚牙齿上,不同部位的釉质切面,釉柱截面的形状、大小以及排列等,有不同的现象.因此在用上述特征描述时,应对所有要比较的样品,须精确地统一在相同的部位.本文以多次实验结果,表明了严格定位取样的重要性.  相似文献
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