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1.
中枢阿片神经系统对焦虑情绪的调控作用及其机制探讨   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
吗啡依赖大鼠自发戒断后其主动接触时间和突期舔水次数均显著减少,并可被5-HT1A受体激动丁螺环酮和色氨酸羟化酸抑制剂对氯苯丙氨酸所对抗。纳曲酮也可使上述两指标降低,并可被吗啡和PCPA所拮抗、被5-羟色氨酸所增强。  相似文献
2.
There is now some evidence that i) the availability of plasma tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, is significantly lower in pregnant women at the end of term and the first few days after delivery than in nonpregnant women; and ii) both pregnancy and the early puerperium are accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of pregnancy and delivery on plasma kynurenine, a major tryptophan catabolite synthesized after induction of indoleamine-2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured plasma kynurenine and tryptophan and immune markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and the leukemia inhibitory factor-receptor (LIF-R) in healthy, nonpregnant and pregnant women at the end of term and one and three days after delivery. Plasma kynurenine was significantly lower in pregnant women at the end of term than in nonpregnant women, findings which may be attributed to lower plasma tryptophan at the end of term. The kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) quotient was significantly higher in the pregnant women at the end of term and in the early puerperium than in nonpregnant women. In the early puerperium there was a significant increase in plasma kynurenine and the K/T quotient. The increases in plasma kynurenine and the K/T quotient were significantly more pronounced in women whose anxiety and depression scores significantly increased in the puerperium. The changes from the end of term to the early puerperium in plasma kynurenine and the K/T quotient were significantly related to those in the immune markers. It is concluded that 1) lower plasma kynurenine at the end of term is the consequence of lower plasma tryptophan; 2) the increased K/T quotient at the end of term and in the early puerperium indicates inflammation-induced degradation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway; and 3) that depressive and anxiety symptoms in the early puerperium are (causally) related to an increased catabolism of tryptophan into kynurenine, a phenomenon which probably results from immune activation.  相似文献
3.
Ghrelin increases anxiety-like behavior and memory retention in rats   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
Ghrelin is a peptide found in the hypothalamus and stomach that stimulates food intake and whose circulating concentrations are affected by nutritional state. Very little is known about other central behavioral effects of ghrelin, and thus, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on anxiety and memory retention. The peptide was injected intracerebroventricularly in rats and we performed open-field, plus-maze, and step-down tests (inhibitory avoidance). The administration of ghrelin increased freezing in the open field and decreased the number of entries into the open spaces and the time spent on the open arms in the plus-maze, indicating an anxiogenic effect. Moreover, the peptide increased in a dose-dependent manner the latency time in the step-down test. A rapid and prolonged increase in food intake was also observed. Our results indicate that ghrelin induces anxiogenesis in rats. Moreover, we show for the first time that ghrelin increases memory retention, suggesting that the peptide may influence processes in the hippocampus.  相似文献
4.
The purpose of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that attenuating the endogenous increase of the 5alpha-reduced progesterone metabolite 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) in the hippocampus will alter anxiety and depression behavior of proestrous rats. In Experiment 1, anxiety (open field) and depression (forced swim test) behavior was compared of rats that should have high (proestrous) and low (diestrous and male rats) endogenous hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP. Proestrous rats exhibited more anxiolytic-like (increased central entries in the open field) and anti-depressant-like (less immobility in the forced swim test) behavior than diestrous or male rats. In Experiments 2 and 3, respectively, systemic and intrahippocampal finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor which attenuates progesterone's metabolism to 3alpha,5alpha-THP, versus vehicle administration to proestrous rats was compared for effects on open field and forced swim test behavior. Systemic or intrahippocampal finasteride decreased central entries in the open field and increased immobility in the forced swim tests compared to vehicle administration. In Experiment 4, the effects of systemic and intrahippocampal finasteride vs vehicle administration on hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP of proestrous rats was examined. Finasteride, SC or intrahippocampally, reduced 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus compared to vehicle administration. Together these data suggest that variations in 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in the hippocampus may mitigate proestrous changes in anxiety and depressive behavior of cycling rats.  相似文献
5.
Obestatin improves memory performance and causes anxiolytic effects in rats   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Obestatin is a peptide hormone that is derived from the same polypeptide precursor (preprogrelin) as ghrelin, but it acts in opposing way on ingestive behavior. Our previous studies showed that ghrelin affects memory and anxiety. Here, we studied the possible effects of icv obestatin injection in rats upon memory retention (using two different paradigms), anxiety like behavior (plus maze test), and food intake. Obestatin induces an increase in the percentage of open arms entries (Obestatin 3.0nmol/rat: 61.74+/-1.81), and percentage of time spent in open arms (Obestatin 3.0nmol/rat: 72.07+/-4.21) in relation to the control (33.31+/-1.54; 25.82+/-1.68), indicating an anxiolytic effect. The two doses of obestatin increased latency time in a step down test and the percentage time of novel object exploration, suggesting that the peptide influences learning and memory processes that involve the hippocampus and the amygdala. This report provides evidence indicating that obestatin effects are functionally opposite on anxiety and hunger to the ghrelin effects, while both these related peptides increase memory retention.  相似文献
6.
There have been few reports on the effects of the brain-gut peptide motilin on the central nervous system (CNS). We administered motilin intracerebroventricularly to mice and investigated the effect of motilin on anxiety using an elevated plus-maze. Motilin produced a significant decrease in anxiety with an inverted U-shaped dose response. To determine whether the anxiolytic effect of motilin was mediated via motilin receptors in the brain, the effect of GM-109, a novel motilin receptor antagonist, was investigated. GM-109 showed a significant and dose-dependent antagonism on the motilin-induced anxiolytic effect. GM-109 administered alone had no effect on anxiety. These results suggest that motilin receptors are present in the brain and may have a role in anxiety and emotion.  相似文献
7.
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced and secreted from the stomach. Hypothalamic injection of the peptide increases food intake but it is not known if the peptide affects other brain regions. We measured several behavioral parameters such as anxiety (elevated plus maze), memory retention (step down test), and food intake after injections of different doses of the peptide in the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The injection of ghrelin in the hippocampus and DRN significantly and dose dependently increased food intake in relation to controls rats, while injections into the amygdala did not affect the food intake. We also show for the first time that ghrelin clearly and dose dependently increases memory retention in the hippocampus, amygdala, and DRN. Moreover, ghrelin at different potencies induced anxiogenesis in these brain structures while the highest dose of 3 nmol/microl was effective in all of them. The comparison of sensitivity of each brain structure indicates a specific role of them for each of the behaviors studied. The results provide new insight in to the anatomical substrate and the functional role of extrahypothalamic ghrelin targets in the CNS.  相似文献
8.
Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) null mutant mice provide a model system to study the role genetic variation in the 5-HTT plays in the regulation of emotion. Anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in 5-HTT null mutants with the mutation placed on either a B6 congenic or a 129S6 congenic background. Replicating previous findings, B6 congenic 5-HTT null mutants exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced exploratory locomotion on the light ↔ dark exploration and elevated plus-maze tests. In contrast, 129S6 congenic 5-HTT null mutant mice showed no phenotypic abnormalities on either test. 5-HTT null mutants on the 129S6 background showed reduced 5-HT1A receptor binding (as measured by quantitative autoradiography) and reduced 5-HT1A receptor function (as measured by 8-OH-DPAT-indcued hypothermia). These data confirm that the 5-HTT null mutation produced alterations in brain 5-HT function in mice on the 129S6 background, thereby discounting the possibility that the absence of an abnormal anxiety-like phenotype in these mice was due to a suppression of the mutation by 129 modifier genes. Anxiety-like behaviors in the light ↔ dark exploration and elevated plus-maze tests were significantly higher in 129S6 congenic +/+ mice as compared to B6 congenic +/+ mice. This suggests that high baseline anxiety-like behavior in the 129S6 strain might have precluded detection of the anxiety-like effects of the 5-HTT null mutation on this background. Present findings provide further evidence linking genetic variation in the 5-HTT to abnormalities in mood and anxiety. Furthermore, these data highlight the utility of conducting behavioral phenotyping of mutant mice on multiple genetic backgrounds.  相似文献
9.
We investigated the effects of pilferage on caching behaviorin the Merriam's kangaroo rat by manipulating two factors associatedwith pilferage: the presence of a conspecific, and the opportunityfor pilferage. In one experiment we assessed animals in either"Stealer" or "Victim" roles and measured changes in caching,space use, and behavior after caches were pilfered. Victimsshifted from a majority scatter-hoarding to a majority larder-hoardingstrategy after their caches were pilfered by the Stealer. InExperiment 2, we measured changes after exposure to a conspecificwhen there was no pilferage, with or without prior exposureto pilferage from Experiment 1. Merriam's kangaroo rats werevigilant when a conspecific was present, but did not changecache strategy. Prior exposure did not have any major effecton caching or behavior. Food storage is an economic decisionthat is often made by a solitary forager. Our results suggestthat social competition nonetheless influences such economic decisions, even in a nonsocial forager.  相似文献
10.
Concentrations of neurosteroids may be influenced by some physiological or pathological factors. We investigated neuroactive steroids in the serum of women suffering from anxiety-depressive disorder treated with fluoxetine and in a control group, in both the follicular and the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Two groups of neuroactive steroids were measured by radioimmunoassays: 1) the positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, allopregnanolone with its precursor progesterone and 2) pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) acting on GABAA receptors by an opposite mechanism. Significantly higher levels of pregnenolone sulfate (p < 0.0001) were found in patients in both phases of the menstrual cycle. Significantly higher values were recorded in pregnenolone (p < 0.001) and 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone (p < 0.01) levels in the patients group in the follicular phase. Our results indicate that imbalance in neuroactive steroids may play a negative role in origin and course of psychiatric and neurological disorders.  相似文献
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