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Although the faunal elements of Far East Asian Mesozoic terrestrial biota have attracted much attention in recent years, their palaeoecology remains poorly known. In particular, features of the palaeoclimate are highly controversial. To address this point we used the Mesozoic fossil wood Xenoxylon , a genus recognized as an indicator of wet temperate biotopes and which is common in the area during the Carnian–Maastrichtian interval. We re-appraised bibliographic data and gathered new data for Xenoxylon in the Mesozoic of Far East Asia. This demonstrated that previous taxonomic approaches to the genus have been so far idiosyncratic. We examined the anatomical diversity of morphogenus Xenoxylon in Far East Asia and compared it to that of samples from Europe. This indicates that in an area centred on north-eastern China, Xenoxylon reached a level of anatomical diversity unmatched elsewhere in the world. We hypothesize that this diversity witnesses the persistence of palaeoecological conditions particularly suitable for Xenoxylon and that a wet temperate climate prevailed over most of the area throughout the Carnian–Maastrichtian interval. It is in this setting that the famous Jehol Biota probably evolved.  相似文献   
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赖氨酰氧化酶(lysyl oxidases,LOXs)是一种能够催化细胞外基质蛋白(如胶原和弹性蛋白)交叉连接的酶类,这一功能使其在组织的稳定、重塑和伤口愈合中发挥重要作用.随着研究的不断深入,LOXs在细胞增殖、细胞趋化以及肿瘤发生等过程中也彰显出十分关键的作用.研究发现,一些诸如结缔组织病、剥脱综合症、铜代谢障碍性疾病及盆腔器官脱垂和骨疾等疾病的发生与LOXs有很大关系.综述了LOXs的生物合成、结构特点、多功能性以及与人类疾病的关系.  相似文献   
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The taxonomy of the endemic arboreal snail Satsuma albida species complex from Taiwan was unclear due to the animals' highly similar morphology, and their nocturnal and strict arboreal behaviour, leading to difficulties in collecting living specimens. This article is the first comprehensive comparative study on the systematics and taxonomy of this species complex using external morphology, anatomy of the reproductive system and molecular phylogeny. Consequently, two subspecies of S. albida are raised to species status, namely S. insignis and S. mollicula. Fourteen new species are also described. Fourteen of the 17 species showed polymorphism in banding pattern amongst populations and other species retained the whitish unity as seen in S. albida. Distributions of almost all taxa are geographically limited, with the exception of S. polymorpha sp. nov . The phylogeny of these species was reconstructed using 20 morphological characters and molecular data from the partial sequences of mtDNA CO1 and 16S rRNA genes, and the complete ITS2 sequence. The molecular phylogeny revealed three subclades (west, east and polymorpha clade) and revealed that these snails are monophyletic, originating from a ground‐dwelling ancestor. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 154 , 437–493.  相似文献   
5.
广西弄岗发现林雕鸮   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
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The effect of the timing of spring migration on reproductive success differs between the sexes. As a consequence, various sex‐specific tactics relating to the timing of migration have evolved in migratory avian groups. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain differential migration to breeding or wintering grounds, and inter‐ and intrasexual size differences are often considered one of the proximate mechanisms. We investigated arrival patterns in the spring by individuals of each sex, sexual size dimorphism and related morphological variables, and the relationship between size variation and arrival date in five bunting species that passed through an East Asian migratory flyway stopover site in 2006–08. Males of all the study species arrived before females, and significant sexual dimorphism was observed. Several morphological characters, including total length, wing‐length and tail‐length, contributed to the size variation. Although larger males arrived earlier, there was no relationship between arrival date and size in females. Our study confirmed that East Asian buntings display a discriminated protandrous migration pattern at the stopover site as well as at the breeding grounds. This is consistent with the view that larger body size in males is favoured due to its association with early arrival to help ensure access to the best resources and hence enhanced mating success.  相似文献   
7.
To examine morphological differences among queens, workers and males, 14 external body characters were measured in two colonies of the Taiwanese stingless bee Trigona ventralis hoozana. Queens were largest in all of the body parts measured except eye width and mesoscutum length, and values for most variables in queens did not overlap with those of workers and males. In contrast, the worker : male size ratios for 11 variables were close to 1.0, showing that overall body size and shape of workers resembled that of males rather than of queens. Males had the largest eyes and their mesoscutum length was comparable to that of queens. ancova between 14 morphometric variables and mesoscutum width chosen as standard body size showed that allometric growth in most variables was not linear. Plotting of some variables on mesoscutum width showed that queens had a proportionally wider first metasomal tergum and longer antennal scape, but a proportionally narrower head and eye than workers and males. These tests suggest that the morphological caste differences in this species belong to a category of complete dimorphism.  相似文献   
8.
The application of sensory methodology for measuring deodorizing effect of an air conditioner equipped with electric plasma was introduced. Deodorizing effect was measured using chemical and sensory methods at different time (0, 30 and 60 min) and mode (control, blowing and cooling) of an air conditioner. Smoke from a roll of cigarette in a closed room was used as a source of odor and the concentrations of acetic acid and ammonia were measured as odorous chemical components. As one of the sensory methods triangle test was used and as a first step to obtain deodorizing effects by triangle test, the threshold of each panelist was obtained as the log dilution ratio of odor concentration at which the difference from odorless air was detected. The odor concentration at each time and mode was calculated using the threshold of the panel and the deodorizing effect was obtained on the basis of the odor concentration. In addition to a triangle test, scaling methods such as category scaling or magnitude estimation were used to measure deodorizing effect of an air conditioner. Deodorizing effects by scaling methods were calculated based on odor intensity with time at each mode. The regression analysis was done between the efficacy of deodorizing effect by sensory test and those by acetic acid and ammonia, the R2 values of the regression equations for triangle test, category scale, and magnitude estimation were 0.84, 0.72 and 0.69, respectively. Deodorizing effect by triangle test explained the decrease of acetic acid and ammonia better than those by category scaling or magnitude estimation while high cost and time consuming labor involved in triangle tests reduced the merit. The results of this study demonstrated that various sensory methods could be used to measure deodorizing effect of air conditioners and further researches on fast and reliable methods are needed to establish the official procedures.  相似文献   
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稻巢螟又名苞螟。它的幼虫为害水稻,取食叶片,吐丝缀叶,连同粪粒做成筒状虫苞并在其间匿居。稻叶受害破碎枯黄影响生长,以前认为稻巢螟只有一种,我们现在研究发现三种。本文目的是对稻巢螟种类进行全面分析研究,根据历年采集收藏的标本,从外形结合生殖器形态构造特征对我国种类作一订正并讨论它的分布。对台湾种类由于手边缺乏标本暂缓讨论。研究用标本都保存在动物研究所。  相似文献   
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