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1.
N-糖蛋白去糖基化酶(PNGase)是一种广泛存在于真菌、植物、哺乳动物中的去糖基化酶,可以水解N-糖蛋白或 N-糖肽上天冬酰胺与寡糖链连接的化学键,并释放出完整的N-寡糖。PNGase在生物体内参与蛋白质降解、器官发育、个体生长等过程。人PNGase基因功能缺陷会导致先天性去糖基化障碍,小鼠PNGase缺陷会导致胚胎致死性,线虫PNGase缺陷使其寿命下降。本文对PNGase在不同物种的分布、蛋白质结构、酶学功能及生物学功能进行阐述,为PNGase的生理病理功能及致病机制的基础研究提供思路,为PNGase作为糖生物学工具酶或药物开发的创新应用研究奠定基础。  相似文献   
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The separation of peptides and proteins by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with cyanopropylsilyl and large-pore propylsilyl supports, together with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradients, was studied. Operating parameters (trifluoroacetic acid concentration, flow rate, and gradient slope) were evaluated using different enzymatic digests of horse cytochrome c and bovine serum albumin. Peptides ranging in size from five amino acids to 68 kDa could be separated on the propylsilyl column in a single chromatographic run. The cyanopropylsilyl column is suitable as a supplement to the use of the large-pore column for medium size (5-20 amino acids) peptides. The chromatographic supports and conditions presented here offer a simple, sensitive, and rapid separation system for a wide size range of peptides and proteins. They extend the versatility of separation methodology for these molecules.  相似文献   
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The HERV‐W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV‐W–derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin‐1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV‐W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)–mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis‐associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis‐associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single‐stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA‐mediated, sequence‐specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single‐stranded DNA‐specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV‐W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single‐stranded DNA binding protein–based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV‐W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho‐neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto‐immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus).  相似文献   
4.
Expression of alternatively spliced mRNA variants at specific stages of development or in specific cells and tissues contributes to the functional diversity of the human genome. Aberrations in alternative splicing were found as a cause or a contributing factor to the development, progression, or maintenance of numerous diseases. The use of antisense oligonucleotides (ON) to modify aberrant expression patterns of alternatively spliced mRNAs is a novel means of potentially controlling such diseases. Oligonucleotides can be designed to repair genetic mutations, to modify genomic sequences in order to compensate for gene deletions, or to modify RNA processing in order to improve the effects of the underlying gene mutation. Steric block ON approach have proven to be effective in experimental model for various diseases. Here, we describe our experience in investigating two strategies for ON delivery: ON conjugation with basic peptides and lipid-based particulate system (lipoplex). Basic peptides or Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPP) such as the TAT-derived peptide appear to circumvent many problems associated with ON and drug delivery. This strategy may represent the next paradigm in our ability to modulate cell function and offers a unique avenue for the treatment of disease. Lipoplexes result from the intimate interaction of ON with cationic lipids leading to ON carrying particles able to be taken up by cells and to release ON in the cytoplasm. We have used as an experimental model the correction of a splicing alteration of the mutated β-globin intron causing thalassemia. Data on cell penetration and efficacy of correction of specific steric block ON delivered either by basic peptides or lipoplex are described. A comparison of the properties of both delivery systems is made respective to the use of this new class of therapeutic molecules.  相似文献   
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The injection of α-MSH or of one of its analogues ([Nle4-D.Phe7] α-MSH4–10) reduced, in vivo, the release of two cytokines (IL-1α and TNFα) involved in inflammation. The inflammatory state was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The assay of these cytokines by ELISA showed a reduction of 20% with α-MSH and between 30 and 60% with the α-MSH analogue. The α-MSH or the analogue was administered in one of two ways: intravenously or subcutaneously. The most efficient method seemed to be the subcutaneous one because it improved the activity 10,000 times more than the intravenous method. Moreover, the analogue induced a regression of mortality in the animals treated by the intravenous method. Our results show that α-MSH and one of its analogues inhibit IL-1α and TNFα, and can be used as anti-inflammatory molecules.  相似文献   
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The frog skin host-defense peptide tigerinin-1R (RVCSAIPLPICH.NH2) is insulinotropic both in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates the effects on insulin release and cytotoxicity of changes in cationicity and hydrophobicity produced by selected substitutions of amino acids by l-arginine, l-lysine and l-tryptophan. The [A5W], [L8W] and [I10W] analogs produced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in the rate of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β cells at concentration of 0.01 nM compared with 0.1 nM for tigerinin-1R. The increase in the rate of insulin release produced by a 3 μM concentration of the [S4R], [H12K], and [I10W] analogs from both BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse islets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that produced by tigerinin-1R. No peptide stimulated the release of lactate dehydrogenase at concentrations up to 3 μM indicating that plasma membrane integrity had been preserved. [A5W] tigerinin-1R was the only analog tested that showed cytotoxic activity against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 265 ± 16 μM) and inhibited growth of Escherichia coli (MIC = 500 μM) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 250 μM). The circular dichroism spectra of tigerinin-1R and [A5W] tigerinin-1R indicate that the peptides adopt a mixture of β-sheet, random coil and reverse β-turn conformations in 50% trifluoroethanol/water and methanol/water. Administration of [S4R] tigerinin-1R (75 nmol/kg body weight) to high-fat fed mice with insulin resistance significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance over a 60 min period following an intraperitoneal glucose load. The study supports the claim that tigerinin-1R shows potential for development into novel therapeutic agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  相似文献   
9.
Antibodies provide a comprehensive record of the encounters with threats and insults to the immune system. The ability to examine the repertoire of antibodies in serum and discover those that best represent “discriminating features” characteristic of various clinical situations, is potentially very useful. Recently, phage display technologies combined with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) produced a powerful experimental methodology, coined “Deep-Panning”, in which the spectrum of serum antibodies is probed. In order to extract meaningful biological insights from the tens of millions of affinity-selected peptides generated by Deep-Panning, advanced bioinformatics algorithms are a must. In this study, we describe Motifier, a computational pipeline comprised of a set of algorithms that systematically generates discriminatory peptide motifs based on the affinity-selected peptides identified by Deep-Panning. These motifs are shown to effectively characterize antibody binding activities and through the implementation of machine-learning protocols are shown to accurately classify complex antibody mixtures representing various biological conditions.  相似文献   
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