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An index of intensity of sexual selection proposed by Nishida (1992: Res. Popul. Ecol. 34: 373–382) was examined. Two examples were presented to show that Nishida's index was not free from confounding effect of mortality schedule. Importance of removing the phylogenetic effects in comparative analyses was also discussed.  相似文献   
3.
Evolutionary analyses of population translocations (experimental or accidental) have been important in demonstrating speed of evolution because they subject organisms to abrupt environmental changes that create an episode of selection. However, the strength of selection in such studies is rarely measured, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary process. This contrasts with long-term, mark–recapture studies of unmanipulated populations that measure selection directly, yet rarely reveal evolutionary change. Here, we present a study of experimental evolution of male colour in Trinidadian guppies where we tracked both evolutionary change and individual-based measures of selection. Guppies were translocated from a predator-rich to a low-predation environment within the same stream system. We used a combination of common garden experiments and monthly sampling of individuals to measure the phenotypic and genetic divergence of male coloration between ancestral and derived fish. Results show rapid evolutionary increases in orange coloration in both populations (1 year or three generations), replicating the results of previous studies. Unlike previous studies, we linked this evolution to an individual-based analysis of selection. By quantifying individual reproductive success and survival, we show, for the first time, that males with more orange and black pigment have higher reproductive success, but males with more black pigment also have higher risk of mortality. The net effect of selection is thus an advantage of orange but not black coloration, as reflected in the evolutionary response. This highlights the importance of considering all components of fitness when understanding the evolution of sexually selected traits in the wild.  相似文献   
4.
This analysis investigates the ontogeny of body size dimorphism in apes. The processes that lead to adult body size dimorphism are illustrated and described. Potential covariation between ontogenetic processes and socioecological variables is evaluated. Mixed-longitudinal growth data from 395 captive individuals (representing Hylobates lar [gibbon], Hylobates syndactylus [siamang], Pongo pygmaeus [orangutan], Gorilla gorilla [gorilla], Pan paniscus [pygmy chimpanzee], and Pan troglodytes [“common” chimpanzee]) form the basis of this study. Results illustrate heterogeneity in the growth processes that produce ape dimorphism. Hylobatids show no sexual differentiation in body weight growth. Adult body size dimorphism in Pongo can be largely attributed to indeterminate male growth. Dimorphism in African apes is produced by two different ontogenetic processes. Both pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) become dimorphic primarily through bimaturism (sex differences in duration of growth). In contrast, sex differences in rate of growth account for the majority of dimorphism in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Diversity in the ontogenetic pathways that produce adult body size dimorphism may be related to multiple evolutionary causes of dimorphism. The lack of sex differences in hylobatid growth is consistent with a monogamous social organization. Adult dimorphism in Pongo can be attributed to sexual selection for indeterminate male growth. Interpretation of dimorphism in African apes is complicated because factors that influence female ontogeny have a substantial effect on the resultant adult dimorphism. Sexual selection for prolonged male growth in gorillas may also increase bimaturism relative to common chimpanzees. Variation in female growth is hypothesized to covary with foraging adaptations and with differences in female competition that result from these foraging adaptations. Variation in male growth probably corresponds to variation in level of sexual selection. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
Some social species exhibit high levels of fission–fusion dynamics (FFD) that improve foraging efficiency. In this study, we shed light on the way that FFD allows animal groups to cope with fluctuations in fruit availability. We explore the relative contribution of fruit availability and social factors like sex in determining association and proximity patterns in spider monkeys. We tested the influence of fruit availability and social factors on the association and proximity patterns using three-year data from a group of spider monkeys in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. We identified subgroup members and estimated their Interindividual distances through instantaneous scan sampling. We evaluated fruit availability by monitoring the phenology of the 10 most important food tree species for spider monkeys in the study site. Social network analyses allowed us to evaluate association and proximity patterns in subgroups. We showed that association patterns vary between seasons, respond to changes in fruit availability, and are influenced by the sex of individuals, likely reflecting biological and behavioral differences between sexes and the interplay between ecological and social factors. In contrast, proximity patterns were minimally affected by changes in fruit availability, suggesting that social factors are more important than food availability in determining cohesion within subgroups.  相似文献   
6.
Strong selection to secure paternity in polyandrous species leads to the evolution of numerous chemicals in the male's seminal content. These include antiaphrodisiac pheromones, which are transmitted from the male to the female during mating to render her unattractive to subsequent males. An increasing number of species have been shown to use these chemicals. Herein, I examine the taxonomic distribution of species using antiaphrodisiac pheromones, the selection pressures driving their evolution in both males and females, and the ecological interactions in which these pheromones are involved. The literature review shows a highly skewed distribution of antiaphrodisiac use; all species currently known to use them are insects with the exception of the garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and T. radix. Nonetheless, many taxa have not yet been tested for the presence of antiaphrodisiacs, in groups both closely and distantly related to species known to express them. Within the Insecta, there have been multiple cases of convergent evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones using different chemical compounds and methods of transmission. Antiaphrodisiacs usually benefit males, but their effect on females is variable as they can either prevent them from mating multiple times or help them reduce male harassment when they are unreceptive. Some indirect costs of antiaphrodisiacs also impact both males and females, but more research is needed to determine how general this pattern is. Additional research is also important to understand how antiaphrodisiacs interact with the reproductive biology and sexual communication in different species.  相似文献   
7.
Sexual reproduction brings together reproductive partners whose long‐term interests often differ, raising the possibility of conflict over their reproductive investment. Males that enhance maternal investment in their offspring gain fitness benefits, even if this compromises future reproductive investment by iteroparous females. When the conflict occurs at a genomic level, it may be uncovered by crossing divergent populations, as a mismatch in the coevolved patterns of paternal manipulation and maternal resistance may generate asymmetric embryonic growth. We report such an asymmetry in reciprocal crosses between populations of the fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus. We also show that a fragment of a gene which can influence embryonic growth (Insulin‐Like Growth Factor 2; igf2) exhibits a parent‐of‐origin methylation pattern, where the maternally inherited igf2 allele has much more 5′ cytosine methylation than the paternally inherited allele. Our findings suggest that male manipulation of maternal investment may have evolved in fish, while the parent‐of‐origin methylation pattern appears to be a potential candidate mechanism modulating this antagonistic coevolution process. However, disruption of other coadaptive processes cannot be ruled out, as these can lead to similar effects as conflict.  相似文献   
8.
This study quantitatively documents the progressive development of sexual dimorphism of the vocal organs along the ontogeny of the goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa). The major, male‐specific secondary sexual features, of vocal anatomy in goitred gazelle are an enlarged larynx and a marked laryngeal descent. These features appear to have evolved by sexual selection and may serve as a model for similar events in male humans. Sexual dimorphism of larynx size and larynx position in adult goitred gazelles is more pronounced than in humans, whereas the vocal anatomy of neonate goitred gazelles does not differ between sexes. This study examines the vocal anatomy of 19 (11 male, 8 female) goitred gazelle specimens across three age‐classes, that is, neonates, subadults and mature adults. The postnatal ontogenetic development of the vocal organs up to their respective end states takes considerably longer in males than in females. Both sexes share the same features of vocal morphology but differences emerge in the course of ontogeny, ultimately resulting in the pronounced sexual dimorphism of the vocal apparatus in adults. The main differences comprise larynx size, vocal fold length, vocal tract length, and mobility of the larynx. The resilience of the thyrohyoid ligament and the pharynx, including the soft palate, and the length changes during contraction and relaxation of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles play a decisive role in the mobility of the larynx in both sexes but to substantially different degrees in adult females and males. Goitred gazelles are born with an undescended larynx and, therefore, larynx descent has to develop in the course of ontogeny. This might result from a trade‐off between natural selection and sexual selection requiring a temporal separation of different laryngeal functions at birth and shortly after from those later in life. J. Morphol. 277:826–844, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
The development and evaluation of a two-session laboratory class, based on Geneswitch technology and sex determination in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is described. Geneswitch system allows conditional control of gene expression. A laboratory exercise has been devised for sophomores in order to illustrate how Geneswitch technology can be used to conditionally over-express the key sex determination gene transformer (tra) during development, and how this inhibits sexual differentiation in males, resulting in a lack of much of the external genitalia and a reduction in the size of the sex combs. The protocol is inexpensive and straightforward, at the meantime gives students a good understanding of how molecular biology technologies can change biological processes including development.  相似文献   
10.
Sperm competition theory predicts that males should use cues indicating the risk and intensity of sperm competition to tailor their sperm investment accordingly. Rival males are an important source of social information regarding sperm competition risk. However, revealing such information may not be in the rival males' interest. Here, we use a theoretical approach based on informed and uninformed games to investigate when information transfer about sperm competition risk to competitors is beneficial for a male, and when it is not. The results show that signalling to potential future mates that a female has already mated is beneficial when the signalling male has a sperm competition disadvantage, whereas it is unfavourable when the signaller has an advantage. The reason for this counterintuitive result is that the rival males' optimal response is to reduce sperm investment when the signaller has a disadvantage and, conversely, to increase investment when the signaller has an advantage. Furthermore, we analysed scenarios where males use alternative reproductive tactics. In this situation, signalling the awareness of sperm competition risk rarely pays; instead, it is beneficial to maintain an information advantage. Thus, it may be beneficial for bourgeois males to accept cuckoldry instead of revealing their sperm competition awareness to reproductive parasites. These results provide new insight into the evolution of communication between rivals in the context of sperm competition.  相似文献   
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