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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) stems in the Negev Desert of southern Israel are subject to mass infestations by stem sawflies larvae, primarily Trachelus tabidus F. (Cephidae, Hymenoptera). Infestations up to 55% and 50% in wheat and barley, respectively, were found in 1982/83. In addition, up to 8.6% of wild oat (Avena sp.) stems were cut by sawfly larvae in June 1983.The phenology of the insects was studied in 1981 to 1983 using yellow watertraps to catch adults and by dissecting infested stems to establish the pre-imaginal stages. Adults emerged at the end of February at magen and at the beginning of March at Gilat. Eggs and newly emerged larvae appeared in April. Larvae in diapause were found in cut stubs at the end of April and beginning of May. Pupae were found at the end of January and February.Of the sawfly specimens trapped in 1982 and 1983, the great majority was identified as T. tabidus and less than 5% as Cephus pygmaeus (Cephidae, Hymenoptera). The males of the sawflies appeared 4–6 days before the females, and were less numerous than them.About 12% of the larvae were parasitised by Tetrastichus sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) in wheat, barley and wild oat, and about 4% by Collyria sp. (Ichneumoidea, Ichneumonidae) in wheat and barley stubs.
Résumé Les tiges de blé et d'orge subissent des attaques massives de tenthrèdes dans le désert du Négev au Sud d'Israël. Des attaques atteignant 55 et 50,4% ont été observée respectivement sur blé et orge en 1982/83.De plus, jusqu'à 8,6% de tiges d'avoine sauvage ont été coupées par les larves de tenthrèdes en juin 1983.La phénologie des insectes a été étudiée de 1981 à 83 en utilisant des pièges jaunes pleins d'eau pour capturer les adultes et en disséquant les tiges attaquées pour déterminer les stades préimaginaux.Les adultes ont émergé à fin de février et au début mars. Les oeufs et les larves sont apparus en avril. Les larves en diapause ont été trouvées dans les souches coupées à la fin de janvier et en février.La grande majorité de Cephidae adultes piégés en 1982 et 1983 a été identifiée Trachelus tabidus F., Cephus pygmaeus L. correspondait à moins de 5%. Les mâles de tenthrèdes sont apparus 4 à 6 jours avant les femelles qui étaient plus nombreuses.Environ 12% des larves étaient parasitées par un eulophide (Tetrastichus sp.) sur blé, orge et avoine sauvage, tandis que 3,6% l'étainent par un ichneumonide (Collyria sp.) dans les souches de blé et d'orge.
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A new species, Macrophyra pseudocoxalis Li, Liu & Wei, sp. nov., of the genus Macrophya Dahlbom (Hymenptera: Tenthredinidae) from China is described. A key to known Chinese species of the Macrophya coxalis group is provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Lishui Academy of Forestry, Lishui, Zhejiang, China.  相似文献   
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记述采自中国四川和西藏钩瓣叶蜂属Macrophya Dahlbom环胫钩瓣叶蜂种团M annulitibia group 2新种:凯文钩瓣叶蜂 Macrophya kaiweni Liu,Li&Wei sp.nov.和拟盛氏钩瓣叶蜂 M.pseudoshengi Liu,Li&Wei sp.nov.;提供了 M.annulitibia group中国已知种类检索表和分布图.  相似文献   
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Abstract. 1. A group of six unusual sawfly species, which do not conform to the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis as it has been applied to sawflies, was examined in natural populations. All species were in the genus Pontania (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which induce galls on leaves of willow species (Salicaceae). An understanding of these non‐conformist species was important as a test of the validity of the general hypothesis. 2. The six species of sawfly, Pontania mandshurica, P. cf. arcticornis, P. aestiva, P. arcticornis, P. pacifica, and P. nr. pacifica, showed no oviposition preference for long, vigorous shoots, in contrast to 37 documented tenthredinid species that have demonstrated such a preference. Rather, the non‐conformist species attacked the shortest shoot length classes more frequently and larval establishment in galls was successful. 3. The evident escape from the phylogenetic constraint, which commonly limits sawfly attack to the most vigorous shoots in a willow population, resulted from low apparent heterogeneity of the resources exploited by these Pontania species. At the time of female oviposition, shoots and leaves were too uniform to allow discrimination by females among shoot length classes, resulting in random, or near random attack of shoots. 4. The unusual relative uniformity of resources to which sawflies were exposed resulted from several characteristics. (1) Females emerged early relative to shoot growth phenology, making discrimination among shoot length and vigour difficult or impossible. (2) Low heterogeneity in leaf length resulted in resource similarity independent of shoot length. (3) Abscission of leaves occurred after emergence of larvae from leaf galls so that differential abscission of leaves in relation to shoot length became irrelevant. (4) In some cases, low variance in shoot lengths was evident in old ramets lacking long, vigorous shoots. Probably as a result of low resource heterogeneity, larvae survived well across all shoot length classes, revealing no ovipositional preference and larval performance linkage related to the exploitation of the longest shoot length classes in a population of willows, as in the conformist species. Therefore, larval survival did not provide positive feedback on female preferential behaviour for long shoots, as in the conformist species studied.  相似文献   
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Laboratory feeding experiments using two transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rape cultivars (Bt‐Westar and Bt‐Oscar) both expressing the Cry1Ac protein, and the corresponding untransformed lines, were carried out to study the effects of transgenic Bt rape on the non‐target herbivore Athalia rosae (L.) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Furthermore, Cry1Ac protein concentration in Bt rape leaves, A. rosae larvae fed Bt rape, their faeces, eonymph instars, pupae, and adults were quantified using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences in mortality, larval development, and weight between transgenic Bt rape and non‐transgenic rape fed A. rosae. Additionally, we did not detect any significant differences in the fecundity and fertility of adult females either fed as larvae with transgenic Bt or with non‐transgenic rape. However, results of the ELISA indicated that Cry1Ac protein was detectable in larvae and faeces (Bt‐Westar 1.1 ± 0.2 and Bt‐Oscar 0.3 ± 0.2 µg Cry1Ac protein/g fresh weight) although this was less than in the leaf material, where concentrations were 2.2 ± 0.8 µg Cry1Ac protein/g fresh weight for Bt‐Westar and 7.5 ± 2.9 µg Cry1Ac protein/g fresh weight in Bt‐Oscar. In contrast, Cry1Ac protein could not be detected in eonymphs, pupae, or adults of A. rosae. Our results suggest that Cry1Ac protein in Bt rape does not have a significant effect on the herbivore A. rosae but the protein is still detectable after ingestion and excretion by these herbivores, thus providing the possibility of exposure to organisms other than herbivores.  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT.
  • 1 Data mostly from the published literature were used to assess the effect of galling on the number of parasitoid species per host species in the phylogeny of nematine sawflies from free external feeders (colonial and solitary) to leaf gallers and shoot gallers.
  • 2 The strongest effects of galling were the total elimination of the species-rich cocoon-attacking guild of parasitoids, and eonymphal parasitoids, from the parasitoid community on shoot gallers, all of which are in the genus Euura.
  • 3 All tachinid larval parasitoids were also eliminated by the galling habit.
  • 4 The cumulative effects of these exclusions resulted in a decline in mean number of parasitoid species per host species from almost sixteen species on external colonial feeders to 4.0 species on shoot gallers.
  • 5 General patterns in per cent parasitism by non-tachinid and tachinid larval parasitoids, eonymphal and cocoon parasitoids, on exposed feeders to shoot gallers, showed declines in non-tachinid attack and elimination of tachinid, eonymphal and cocoon parasitoids. But leaf gallers tended to be attacked more than exposed feeders by non-tachinid larval parasitoids.
  • 6 The galling habit had a long-term impact by reducing the number of parasitoid species attacking nematine sawfly gallers and per cent mortality inflicted, so that natural enemies may have been important as a selective factor in the evolution of galling nematine sawflies.
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Three Athalia sawflies, A. japonica, A. rosae and A. infumata, feeding on cruciferous plants, coexist in Japan. However, it is not known what ecological strategies they use and what environmental factors are crucial to such strategies. I attempted to explain these questions by examining the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of three Athalia sawflies and their habitats in three districts (Lowland, Intermediate and Mountain). The three sawflies have different spatio-temporal distribution patterns, though they usually used common cruciferous plants. A. japonica was abundant in spring and autumn but disappeared during summer in all the districts. In the Lowland, populations of A. rosae and A. infumata, like that of A. japonica, crashed in summer. However A. rosae occurred mainly in summer in the Intermediate and Mountain. Although A. infumata occurred in the same seasons as A. rosae in all districts, population levels of A. infumata were always lower than those of A. rosae. The crucial factors controlling their population patterns were the availability of host plants and temperature. Population crashes of A. rosae and A. infumata were due to food depletion, and those of A. japonica were due to heat stress. On the other hand, their population patterns may be interpreted as phenological synchronization with their original host plants, though they all existed on common cruciferous plants. The three sawflies may have evolved different strategies to escape from unfavorable habitat conditions. Such strategies are speculated to be summer diapause in A. japonica, long distance migration in A. rosae, and local dispersal in A. infumata.  相似文献   
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