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1.
The vitamin D binding protein (Gc) and posttransferrin-2 (Ptf-2) phenotypes have been determined in a number of Belgian cattle breeds. A very slow migrating variant of the Gc protein — Gc C — has been found in White and Red East Flemish breed. This variant was absent from the other breeds studied. This slow variant was identified as a vitamin D binding protein by autoradiography. The Gc C protein was shown to be controlled by a codominant autosomal allele Gc C at the Gclocus. The Gc C protein is probably identical with a fraction previously described in buffalo and an Italian cattle breed. The allele frequencies for the Gc and Pft-2 systems are reported for several Belgian breeds of cattle.  相似文献   
2.
Several unit-length minicircles from the kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania tarentolae were cloned into pBR322 and into M13 phage vectors. The complete nucleotide sequences of three different partially homologous minicircles were obtained. The molecules contained a region of approx. 80% sequence homology extending for 160–270 bp and a region unique to each minicircle. A 14-mer was found to be conserved in all kinetoplast minicircle sequences reported to date. The frequency distributions of various minicircle sequence classes in L. tarentolae were obtained by quantitative gel electrophoresis and by examination of the “T ladder” patterns of minicircles randomly cloned into M13 at several sites. By these methods we could assign approx. 50% of the total minicircle DNA into a minimum of five sequence classes. A sequence-dependent polyacrylamide gel migration abnormality was observed with several minicircle fragments both cloned and uncloned. The abnormality was dependent on the presence of a portion of the conserved region of the minicircle.  相似文献   
3.
Many proteins that can assemble into higher order structures termed amyloids can also concentrate into cytoplasmic inclusions via liquid–liquid phase separation. Here, we study the assembly of human Golgi-Associated plant Pathogenesis Related protein 1 (GAPR-1), an amyloidogenic protein of the Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) protein superfamily, into cytosolic inclusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of GAPR-1-GFP results in the formation GAPR-1 oligomers and fluorescent inclusions in yeast cytosol. These cytosolic inclusions are dynamic and reversible organelles that gradually increase during time of overexpression and decrease after promoter shut-off. Inclusion formation is, however, a regulated process that is influenced by factors other than protein expression levels. We identified N-myristoylation of GAPR-1 as an important determinant at early stages of inclusion formation. In addition, mutations in the conserved metal-binding site (His54 and His103) enhanced inclusion formation, suggesting that these residues prevent uncontrolled protein sequestration. In agreement with this, we find that addition of Zn2+ metal ions enhances inclusion formation. Furthermore, Zn2+ reduces GAPR-1 protein degradation, which indicates stabilization of GAPR-1 in inclusions. We propose that the properties underlying both the amyloidogenic properties and the reversible sequestration of GAPR-1 into inclusions play a role in the biological function of GAPR-1 and other CAP family members.  相似文献   
4.
Kenya is endemic for cholera with different waves of outbreaks having been documented since 1971. In recent years, new variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 have emerged and have replaced most of the traditional El Tor biotype globally. These strains also appear to have increased virulence, and it is important to describe and document their phenotypic and genotypic traits. This study characterized 146 V. cholerae O1 isolates from cholera outbreaks that occurred in Kenya between 1975 and 2017. Our study reports that the 1975–1984 strains had typical classical or El Tor biotype characters. New variants of V. cholerae O1 having traits of both classical and El Tor biotypes were observed from 2007 with all strains isolated between 2015 and 2017 being sensitive to polymyxin B and carrying both classical and El Tor type ctxB. All strains were resistant to Phage IV and harbored rstR, rtxC, hlyA, rtxA and tcpA genes specific for El Tor biotype indicating that the strains had an El Tor backbone. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping differentiated the isolates into 14 pulsotypes. The clustering also corresponded with the year of isolation signifying that the cholera outbreaks occurred as separate waves of different genetic fingerprints exhibiting different genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The emergence and prevalence of V. cholerae O1 strains carrying El Tor type and classical type ctxB in Kenya are reported. These strains have replaced the typical El Tor biotype in Kenya and are potentially more virulent and easily transmitted within the population.  相似文献   
5.
A simple, rapid, and inexpensive method for the preparation and purification of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from pea has been developed. The crucial step is the isolation of chloroplasts in a medium of high ionic strength (I congruent equal to 1.40 M). CpDNA from pea prepared according to this method has successfully been used for restriction enzyme mapping, Southern transfers, and cloning.  相似文献   
6.
7.
Abstract Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to characterize Rhizobium bacteria isolated from the root nodules of Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis trees growing in Sudan and Keya. For the electrophoresis, the total DNA of 42 isolates, embedded in agarose, was digested by a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease, Xba I. The PFGE run resulted in good resolution of the DNA fragments and gave the strains distinctive fingerprint patterns. The patterns were analysed visually and using automated clustering analysis, which divided the strains into groups resembling the results generated by numerical taxonomy. However, several strains had unique banding patterns, which indicates that these strains are genetically very diverse.  相似文献   
8.
Casein was conjugated with dextran and galactomannan in a controlled dry state at a relative humidity of 79% and at 60°C for 24 hr. The covalent attachment of polysaccharides to casein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The emulsifying activity of the casein-dextran and casein-galactomannan conjugates was 1.5 times higher than that of casein. The emulsion stability of the casein-dextran and casein-galactomannan conjugates was 10 times higher than that of casein. The improvement in these emulsifying properties reached a steady state when the conjugation of casein with polysaccharide was done for 24 hr in a controlled dry state, suggesting the rapid formation of conjugates through a Maillard reaction in the case of casein. Compared to commercial emulsifiers, the casein-polysaccharide conjugates showed better emulsifying properties in acidic and high-salt concentration systems.  相似文献   
9.
Summary The long-range structure of 5S rRNA gene clusters has been investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using aneuploid stocks, 5S rRNA gene clusters were assigned to sites on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 513 and 5D. Cluster sizes were evaluated and the copy number of 5S DNA repeats was estimated at 4700-5200 copies for the short repeating unit (410 bp) and about 3100 copies for the long repeat (500 bp) per haploid genome. A comparison of wheat cultivars revealed extremely high levels of polymorphism in the 5S rRNA gene clusters. With one restriction enzyme digest all varieties tested gave unique banding patterns and, on a per fragment basis, 21-fold more polymorphism was detected among cultivars for 5S DNA compared to standard restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) detected with single copy clones. Experiments with aneuploid stocks suggest that the 5S rRNA gene clusters at several chromosomal sites contribute to this polymorphism. A number of previous reports have shown that wheat cultivars are not easily distinguished by isozymes or RFLPs. The high level of variation detected in 5S rRNA gene clusters therefore offers the possibility of a sensitive fingerprinting method for wheat. 5S DNA and other macro-satellite sequences may also serve as hypervariable Mendelian markers for genetic and breeding experiments in wheat.  相似文献   
10.
Three ultrasensitive protein silver-staining methods have been compared with respect to the detection of tRNA in polyacrylamide gels. The method of Sammons (D. W. Sammons, L.D. Adams, and E.E. Nishizawa (1981) Electrophoresis 2, 135-141) has been shown to have remarkable sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng tRNA/mm2, allowing the two-dimensional fractionation of submicrogram amounts of bulk tRNA. The application of this technique to developmental and differentiation problems and other areas where the amounts of nonradioactive tRNA available are limited is anticipated.  相似文献   
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