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 This paper deals with the use of cladistic methods and cladograms in phylogeny reconstruction in plant groups containing numerous taxa. How accurate are the cladograms as to details? Accuracy tests at the level of details require an independently known phylogeny, which excludes most plant groups, but such tests can be carried out in domesticated and experimental plant groups which have documented pedigrees. Four such tests are known and are presented here: a new case in Gilia and three previously published cases in Avena, Hordeum, and Helianthus. The four cases include domesticated and experimental plants, use of morphological and molecular evidence, and presence of dichotomous as well as reticulate phylogenies. The cladograms of the four plant groups all differ in significant details from the known pedigrees. These results are discussed in relation to problems of interpretation of cladograms. Received March 21, 2000 Accepted August 16, 2001  相似文献   
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Bidens cordylocarpa is a high polyploid species restricted in distribution to stream sides in the mountains of Jalisco, Mexico. The morphologically enigmatic species was originally described as a member of the genus Coreopsis, but later transferred to Bidens, largely because the involucral bracts appear most similar to Bidens. Characters of the cypselae, often useful in generic placement, are of no value for this species because the fruits have features not detected in either Bidens or Coreopsis. Sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) were used to assess the relationships of Bidens cordylocarpa. The molecular phylogeny places B. cordylocarpa in a strongly supported clade of Mexican and South American Bidens, and provides more definitive evidence of relationships than morphology, chromosome number, or secondary chemistry. Molecular, morphological, and chromosomal data suggest that B. cordylocarpa is an ancient polyploid, perhaps the remnant of a polyploid complex. Received August 28, 2000 Accepted February 11, 2001  相似文献   
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Lens includes L. culinaris subsp. culinaris (the cultivated lentil) and several wild species distributed from the Mediterranean region to western Asia. We compared sequence variation in the ITS region among species of Lens in an effort to end persisting uncertainty regarding the phylogeny of the genus. The parsimony analysis revealed a single minimum-length tree with a topology congruent with patterns derived by previous studies of nuclear and chloroplast DNA RFLPs. The basal and highly divergent status of the L. nigricans clade is depicted, and the progenitor-derivative relationship between L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. culinaris subsp. culinaris is reaffirmed. Resolution in the tree was improved by combining the ITS data set with a pre-existing set of chloroplast DNA restriction site data obtained from the same group of samples. Received May 8, 2000 Accepted October 26, 2001  相似文献   
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Abstract

Microorganisms capable of aerobic respiration on ferrous ions are spread throughout eubacterial and archaebacterial phyla. Phylogenetically distinct organisms were shown to express spectrally distinct redox‐active biomolecules during autotrophic growth on soluble iron. A new iron‐oxidizing eubacterium, designated as strain Funis, was investigated. Strain Funis was judged to be different from other known iron‐oxidizing bacteria on the bases of comparative lipid analyses, 16S rRNA sequence analyses, and cytochrome composition studies. When grown autotrophically on ferrous ions, Funis produced conspicuous levels of a novel acid‐stable, acid‐soluble yellow cytochrome with a distinctive absorbance peak at 579 nm in the reduced state.

Stopped‐flow spectrophotometric kinetic studies were conducted on respiratory chain components isolated from cell‐free extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Experimental results were consistent with a model where the primary oxidant of ferrous ions is a highly aggregated c‐type cytochrome that then reduces the periplasmic rusticyanin. The Fe(II)‐dependent, cytochrome c‐catalyzed reduction of the rusticyanin possessed three kinetic properties in common with corresponding intact cells that respire on iron: the same anion specificity, a similar dependence of the rate on the concentration of ferrous ions, and similar rates at saturating concentrations of ferrous ions  相似文献   
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A widespread trend in animals is the evolution of morphological ornaments and behaviours that are involved in aggressive and courtship displays. These display traits are important from the standpoint of communication, sexual selection, and speciation. Previous authors have suggested that the evolution of display morphology and display behaviour should be closely linked. In this study, I tested for this association with behavioural and morphological data for 59 taxa of phrynosomatid lizards using phylogenetic comparative methods (Mad-dison's concentrated changes test and Felsenstein's independent contrasts). The results showed little significant association between features of display morphology and behaviour, suggesting that the evolution of these traits is not tightly coupled. This decoupling is particularly evident in the genus Sceloporus , in which several species have lost the display coloration but retain unmodified display behaviour. The results also suggest that display morphology is more evolutionarily labile than display behaviour in this group.  相似文献   
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Barleria L. (Acanthaceae) is a large, polymorphic, widespread genus of herbs and shrubs comprising about 300 species, occurring mainly in Africa and Asia but with one species, Barleria oenotheroides Dum.Cours., extending to the New World tropics. Recent completion of a monographic infra-generic classification of the genus (in which seven sections are recognised, and the names of four of these validated in this paper—see Appendix 1), has facilitated a comprehensive analysis of distribution patterns on a global scale. The richest representation of Barleria is in Africa where there are two centres of diversity, one in tropical East Africa (about eighty species) and the other in southern Africa (about seventy species). The number of species tails off rapidly to both the Far East and the West. Barleria shows a marked trans-Atlantic disjunction between West Africa and the Neotropics, with B. oenotheroides shared by these two regions. This type of disjunction, which is known in other genera of the family, cannot be adequately explained in Barleria on the basis of long-distance dispersal or past continental movements. There is a high degree of regional endemism (e.g. 75% for the Indian subcontinent) at both the species and sectional levels within this genus. The degree of similarity between regions is correspondingly low. The endemics in each region tend to belong to only one or a few of the sections. There are few truly widespread taxa within the genus. East and West Africa are the only regions in which all sections are represented. Sections Barleria and Prionitis C.B. Cl. are the most widespread in the genus; Sections Somalia (Oliv.) Lindau, Fissimura M. Balkwill and Stellatohirtae M. Balkwill are mainly restricted to Africa and Sections Chrysothrix M. Balkwill and Cavirostrata M. Balkwill are the most restricted, occurring mainly in India and Sri Lanka. On a local scale, many of the species show highly restricted, clumped distributions; this is apparently related to particular soil types and possibly to the short-distance, ballistic mode of seed dispersal. This account of the biogeography of Barleria is to be regarded as preliminary, as much taxonomic work at the species level remains to be done before a full-scale cladistic biogeographic account can be undertaken. Particular areas worthy of future investigation include establishing the centre of origin of the genus and investigating the basis for the high degree of endemism shown by many of the species.  相似文献   
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