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1.
Abstract

Cultures of filamentous fungi that secrete significant amounts of exopolysaccharides are among the most difficult of fermentation fluids, presenting difficulties in the areas of aeration, agitation, mixing, and control that may in turn impact the physiology of the microorganism in an undesirable manner. The fungus Sclerotium glucanicum, which produces a potentially useful exopolysaccharide known as scleroglucan, illustrates many such difficulties. This review discusses in detail the range of physiological studies on the producing microorganism itself, including those concerning formation of “undesirable” byproducts, principally oxalate, but also, under certain conditions, other TCA cycle acids. In addition, the bioreactor technology in use for production of this type of biopolymer is discussed in relation to the difficulties such fluid types present. The potential of pneumatically agitated reactors for such production is evaluated, and the lack of fundamental studies on such reactors and on the hydrodynamics and mixing behavior of such complex fluids is pointed out.  相似文献   
2.
W D Davies  J Pittard  B E Davidson 《Gene》1985,33(3):323-331
Defective transducing phages carrying aroG, the structural gene for phenylalanine (phe)-inhibitable phospho-2-keto-heptonate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.15; previously known as 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase[phe]), have been isolated, and DNA from two of these phages has been used to construct a restriction map of the region from att lambda to aroG. A 7.6-kb PstI-HindIII fragment from one of these phages was cloned into pBR322 and shown to contain aroG. The location of aroG within the 7.6 kb was established by subcloning and Tn3 transpositional mutagenesis. A fragment carrying the aroG promoter and operator has been cloned into a high copy number promoter-cloning vector (pMC489), and the resulting aroGpo-LacZ' (alpha) fusion subcloned in a low copy number vector. Strains with this fusion on the low copy number vector exhibit negative regulation of beta-galactosidase expression by both phenylalanine and tryptophan and positive regulation by tyrosine in a tyrR+ background.  相似文献   
3.
Several unit-length minicircles from the kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania tarentolae were cloned into pBR322 and into M13 phage vectors. The complete nucleotide sequences of three different partially homologous minicircles were obtained. The molecules contained a region of approx. 80% sequence homology extending for 160–270 bp and a region unique to each minicircle. A 14-mer was found to be conserved in all kinetoplast minicircle sequences reported to date. The frequency distributions of various minicircle sequence classes in L. tarentolae were obtained by quantitative gel electrophoresis and by examination of the “T ladder” patterns of minicircles randomly cloned into M13 at several sites. By these methods we could assign approx. 50% of the total minicircle DNA into a minimum of five sequence classes. A sequence-dependent polyacrylamide gel migration abnormality was observed with several minicircle fragments both cloned and uncloned. The abnormality was dependent on the presence of a portion of the conserved region of the minicircle.  相似文献   
4.
Wild animal genetic resource banking (GRB) represents a valuable tool in conservation breeding programs, particularly in cases involving endangered species such as the golden‐headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Thus, we aimed to assess a sperm freezing protocol for golden‐headed lion tamarins using two different exenders: BotuBOV® (BB) and Test Yolk Buffer® (TYB). Ejaculates were collected by penile vibrostimulation from animals housed at São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil, and after immediate analysis, two aliquots were diluted in BB and TYB. Postthawing samples were evaluated for total and progressive motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrities, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, and sperm–egg‐binding. No differences between BB and TYB were found for most seminal parameters, except for acrosome integrity and susceptibility to oxidative stress (in both cases BB showed higher values). However, in spite of these differences and regardless of the extender used, postthaw sperm motility and viability with the described protocol were encouraging (on average >50% and >80%, respectively), indicating that sperm cryopreservation may be a short‐term measure for the conservation of golden‐headed lion tamarins.  相似文献   
5.
《Molecular cell》2021,81(24):5099-5111.e8
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6.
7.
Antibodies provide a comprehensive record of the encounters with threats and insults to the immune system. The ability to examine the repertoire of antibodies in serum and discover those that best represent “discriminating features” characteristic of various clinical situations, is potentially very useful. Recently, phage display technologies combined with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) produced a powerful experimental methodology, coined “Deep-Panning”, in which the spectrum of serum antibodies is probed. In order to extract meaningful biological insights from the tens of millions of affinity-selected peptides generated by Deep-Panning, advanced bioinformatics algorithms are a must. In this study, we describe Motifier, a computational pipeline comprised of a set of algorithms that systematically generates discriminatory peptide motifs based on the affinity-selected peptides identified by Deep-Panning. These motifs are shown to effectively characterize antibody binding activities and through the implementation of machine-learning protocols are shown to accurately classify complex antibody mixtures representing various biological conditions.  相似文献   
8.
The availability of binders to different functional domains of the same protein or to physiologically co-operating proteins allows for the simultaneous inhibition of independent downstream signaling pathways. This multi-target approach represents a promising therapeutic strategy, as demonstrated in the case of the synergistic effect of anti-Her2 treatment based on the combined use of the trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies that induce cellular cytotoxicity and impair the receptor dimerization, respectively. Therefore, a reliable selection method for the recovery of epitope-specific antibodies is highly needed. Animal immunization with short peptides resembling the epitope sequence for raising conventional antibodies represents an alternative. Panning phage displayed libraries of recombinant antibodies such as scFvs and nanobodies or of other peptide collections is another option. Although recombinant antibodies can provide the same specificity as conventional antibodies, they offer at least two further advantages: i) the protocols for the selection of epitope-specific antibodies can be rationally designed, and ii) their expression as multivalent, bispecific and biparatopic molecules is feasible. This review will analyze the recent literature concerning technical aspects related to the isolation, the expression as multivalent molecules, and the therapeutic applications of binders able to interfere with antigen functional domains. The term binder will be preferred when possible to include those molecules, such as peptides or affibodies, with at least some proven practical uses.  相似文献   
9.
《Molecular cell》2021,81(17):3650-3658.e5
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10.
Drug resistance is a critical obstacle to effective treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. To understand the underlying resistance mechanisms in response to imatinib mesylate (IMA) and adriamycin (ADR), the parental K562 cells were treated with low doses of IMA or ADR for 2 months to generate derivative cells with mild, intermediate, and severe resistance to the drugs as defined by their increasing resistance index. PulseDIA-based (DIA [data-independent acquisition]) quantitative proteomics was then employed to reveal the proteome changes in these resistant cells. In total, 7082 proteins from 98,232 peptides were identified and quantified from the dataset using four DIA software tools including OpenSWATH, Spectronaut, DIA-NN, and EncyclopeDIA. Sirtuin signaling pathway was found to be significantly enriched in both ADR-resistant and IMA-resistant K562 cells. In particular, isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 was identified as a potential drug target correlated with the drug resistance phenotype, and its inhibition by the antagonist AGI-6780 reversed the acquired resistance in K562 cells to either ADR or IMA. Together, our study has implicated isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 as a potential target that can be therapeutically leveraged to alleviate the drug resistance in K562 cells when treated with IMA and ADR.  相似文献   
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